Cornea

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cornea

 [kor´ne-ah]
the clear, transparent anterior covering of the eye (see also color plates). The cornea is subject to injury by foreign bodies in the eye, bacterial infection, and viral infection, especially by the herpesvirus that causes herpes simplex. The herpesvirus that causes herpes zoster (shingles) can also infect the cornea. Prompt treatment of any corneal injury or infection is essential to avoid ulceration and loss of vision.
Cornea. From Dorland's, 2000.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

cor·ne·a

(kōr'nē-ă), [TA]
The transparent tissue constituting the anterior sixth of the outer wall of the eye, with a 7.7-mm radius of curvature as contrasted with the 13.5 mm of the sclera; it consists of stratified squamous epithelium continuous with that of the conjunctiva, a substantia propria, substantially regularly arranged collagen imbedded in mucopolysaccharide, and an inner layer of endothelium. It is the chief refractory structure of the eye.
[L. fem. of corneus, horny]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

cornea

(kôr′nē-ə)
n.
The transparent convex anterior portion of the outer fibrous coat of the eyeball that covers the iris and the pupil and is continuous with the sclera.

cor′ne·al (-əl) adj.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

cor·ne·a

(kōr'nē-ă) [TA]
The transparent tissue constituting the anterior sixth of the outer wall of the eye, with a 7.7-mm radius of curvature as contrasted with the 13.5-mm radius of the sclera. It consists of stratified squamous epithelium continuous with that of the conjunctiva, a substantia propria, regularly arranged collagen imbedded in mucopolysaccharide, and an inner layer of endothelium. It is the chief refractory structure of the eye.
[L. fem. of corneus, horny]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

cornea

The outer, and principle, lens of the eye through which the coloured iris with its central hole (the pupil) can be seen. The cornea performs most of the focusing of the eye. Fine adjustment (ACCOMMODATION) is done by the internal crystalline lens.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

cornea

that part of the SCLERA at the front of the eye of vertebrates overlaying the iris and lens. It is a transparent layer of EPITHELIUM and CONNECTIVE TISSUE through which light enters the eye and is refracted so that the lens can then focus it on the retina. The cornea contains no blood vessels, oxygen coming directly from air dissolved in tear secretions, and is therefore easy to transplant as no tissue-typing is required.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Cornea

Clear, bowl-shaped structure at the front of the eye. It is located in front of the colored part of the eye (iris). The cornea lets light into the eye and partially focuses it.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

cornea 

The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the globe of the eye. It has a curvature somewhat greater than the rest of the globe, so a slight furrow marks its junction with the sclera. Looked at from the front the cornea is about 12 mm horizontally and 11 mm vertically. It is the first and most important refracting surface of the eye, having a power of about 42 D. The anterior surface has a radius of curvature of about 7.8 m, the posterior surface 6.5 mm, and the central thickness is about 0.5 mm. It consists of five layers, starting from the outside: (1) the stratified squamous epithelium; (2) Bowman's layer; (3) the stroma (substantia propria); (4) Descemet's membrane; and (5) the endothelium. The cornea is avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae. The sources of nourishment are the aqueous humour, the tears and the limbal capillaries. The cornea is innervated by the long ciliary and other nerves of the surrounding conjunctiva, which are all branches of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. Innervation is entirely sensory. Within the cornea there are only unmyelinated nerve endings. The density of nerves in the cornea is very high, making it the most sensitive structure in the body. The major structural component of the cornea is collagen, mostly type I, and most of the ground substance between the collagen fibrils in the corneal stroma is proteoglycans whose core proteins bind with keratan sulfate and dermatan sulfate (chondroitin sulfate B). The cornea owes its transparency to the regular arrangement of the collagen fibrils, but any factor that affects this lattice structure (e.g. swelling, pressure) results in a loss of transparency. The cornea contains some 78% water, some 15% collagen and some 5% of other proteins (Fig. C18). See endothelial bedewing; corneal stroma; corneal topography; dellen; deturgescence; dyskeratosis; glycosaminoglycan; keratitis; keratomycosis; Hudson-Stahli line; Bowman's layer; Descemet's membrane; microcornea; specular microscope; optical zone of cornea; pachometer; Maurice's theory; Hurler's syndrome; videokeratoscope.
conical cornea See keratoconus.
cornea farinata A bilateral corneal degeneration characterized by faint dust-like opacities in the deep stroma. They do not impair vision and are usually age-related.
cornea guttata Dystrophy of the endothelial cells of the cornea which may result from corneal trauma, cataract surgery, keratic precipitates, tonography, ageing, continuous contact lens wear, or as part of the early stages of Fuch's endothelial dystrophy (a disease associated with ageing and with females more than males). It is seen clinically by slit-lamp examination as black spherules in the endothelial pattern. The condition is bilateral, although one eye may be affected more than the other. As the condition progresses the cornea becomes oedematous with a consequent loss of vision and eventually turns into bullous keratopathy. If the degenerated cells are located at the periphery of the cornea they are called Hassall-Henle bodies and are of no clinical significance except as an indication of ageing. Syn. corneal guttae; endothelial corneal dystrophy. See specular reflection illumination; keratic precipitates.
optical zone of cornea See optical zone of cornea.
cornea plana A rare, congenital, usually bilateral condition in which the corneal curvature is flatter than normal with a significant decrease in refractive power. The eye is usually hyperopic with a shallow anterior chamber often resulting in angle-closure glaucoma. There is some degree of peripheral scleralization and it is closely associated with sclerocornea.
Fig. C18 Diagram showing the various layers of the cornea (k, keratocytes)enlarge picture
Fig. C18 Diagram showing the various layers of the cornea (k, keratocytes)
Millodot: Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 7th edition. © 2009 Butterworth-Heinemann

cor·ne·a

(kōr'nē-ă) [TA]
Transparent tissue constituting the anterior sixth of the outer wall of the eye, with a 7.7-mm radius of curvature.
[L. fem. of corneus, horny]
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012

Patient discussion about Cornea

Q. Has anyone had experience with a corneal transplant because of keratoconus?

A. my uncle had to do a transplant- it took 5 weeks until he could see anything , another year to get his vision straightened up. but now he is fine! i know that he looked for information in the "National Keratoconus Foundation". they were very helpful (and nice!), they have a website with information on all forms of treatment:
http://www.nkcf.org/

good luck :)

More discussions about Cornea
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References in periodicals archive ?
Dr Titiyal informed that soon the RP Eye Centre may start using drones to transport cornea tissues from remote areas to the transplantation centres.
He said that so far the Sight foundation has donated 25,000 eyes cornea to the people of Pakistan and will be enhancing the numbers further.
He said that so far the Sight Foundation had donated 25,000 eyes cornea to the people of Pakistan and would be enhancing the numbers further.
carried suffer experienced Furthermore, Fight for Sight, the charity dedicated to funding research to treat eye under local corneal needs thickness (DALK) cornea; the back for disease, found that in 2017 there were 892 fewer donors than the transplants needed.
However, he noted that 'it was a matter of concern that we do not have any trend of eye donations or facilities for preservation of Cornea in Pakistan.'
A scheme devised by an NHS Forth Valley emergency department doctor has seen cornea donation double over the past year.
The health authority said that in the last year, 3,504 people in England have had their sight restored through cornea transplants.
The 3D printed corneas will have to undergo further testing and it will be several years before they could be used for transplants.
But with a significant shortage of corneas available to transplant, new research has opened up the possibility of a radical new solution.
The 3D-printed corneas, however, won't be available any time soon for transplant.
NEWCASTLE scientists have made a major breakthrough in tackling a worldwide shortage of eye donors after 3D-printing human corneas for the first time.
But there is a significant shortage of corneas available to transplant, with 10 million people globally in need of surgery to prevent corneal blindness as a result of diseases such as trachoma, an infectious eye disorder.