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Ophthalmic examinations included slit-lamp biomicroscopy, fundus exam, Schirmer tear test, conjunctival bacterial culture and isolation, corneal touch threshold, tonometry, and corneal diameter measurement.
Factors that may influence the corneal touch threshold (CTT) values have already been studied in horses (BROOKS et al., 2000; KAPS et al., 2003; WIESER et al., 2013), birds (LACERDA et al., 2014), dogs (KOBASHIGAWA et al., 2015) and cats (BLOCKER & VAN DER WOERT, 2001).
Corneal touch threshold (CTT) was measured in the right eye of each horse in the nasal, ventral, dorsal and temporal regions, approximately 2mm from the limbus, and in the center of the cornea, using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer (Luneau Ophthalmologie, Chartres Cedex, France) (Figure 1).
Corneal esthesiometers evaluate corneal sensitivity by measuring the corneal touch threshold (CTT).
Central corneal touch threshold (CCT) was assessed by a blinded examiner using a Cochet-Bonett[R] esthesiometer (Lunaeu, France).
Data were normally distributed by KomogorovSmirnov test (P>0.01), therefore repeated measures ANOVA followed by Bonferroni multicomparison test was used to check for differences in the percentage of wound area and corneal touch threshold between each time point.
Before induction of corneal ulceration, corneal touch threshold (CCT) (g [mm.sup.-2]) did not change significantly after 1% nalbuphine instillation at any time point (P=0.91).