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Related to corneal endothelium: Corneal epithelium
The posterior layer of the cornea consisting of a single layer of cells, about 5 μm thick, bound together and predominantly hexagonal in shape. The posterior border is in direct contact with the aqueous humour while the anterior border is in contact with Descemet's membrane. The endothelium is the structure responsible for the relative dehydration of the corneal stroma. The endothelium receives most of its energy from the oxidative breakdown of carbohydrates via the Krebs cycle. In the normal adult eye the cell density varies from around 3000 cells/mm2 in the centre of the cornea to about 2000 cells/mm2 in the periphery. With age, disease or trauma the density of cells decreases but with disease or trauma this reduction may affect corneal transparency, as some fluid then leaks into the cornea. See endothelial bedewing; endothelial blebs; cornea guttata; specular reflection illumination; specular microscope; phacoemulsification; endothelial polymegethism.