corneal dystrophy


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Related to corneal dystrophy: granular corneal dystrophy, corneal degeneration

cor·ne·al dys·tro·phy

[MIM*217600]
central corneal opacification, usually bilateral, symmetric, involving predominantly epithelial, stromal, or endothelial layers, often in a typical pattern; autosomal recessive inheritance.

corneal dystrophy

One of a range of conditions in which any of the three main layers of the cornea may be affected by a disorder of growth or development. Dystrophies usually interfere with the transparency or optical efficiency of the cornea and commonly damage vision. A few are very painful but most are painless. Some dystrophies can be readily treated by CORNEAL GRAFT.

corneal

pertaining to the cornea. See also keratitis, keratopathy.

corneal anomaly
includes microcornea, coloboma, megalocornea, dermoid, congenital opacity.
corneal black body
see corneal sequestrum (below).
corneal coloboma
an uncommon congenital defect in the continuity of the cornea; may have concurrent herniation of the uveal tract. See also coloboma.
corneal dystrophy
a developmental condition, inherited in some breeds of dogs and cats. May cause corneal edema and ulceration. See also keratopathy.
corneal ectasia
corneal edema
occurs when fluid accumulates in the corneal stroma, disrupting the normal lamellar structure and causing a loss of transparency. Commonly called blue eye.
corneal erosion syndrome
see refractory ulcer.
feline focal corneal necrosis
see corneal sequestrum (below).
corneal hyaline membrane
an abnormal, semitransparent membrane on the posterior surface of the cornea, attached to the endothelium. Can be associated with persistent pupillary membrane. Caused by inflammation or a developmental defect.
corneal inflammation
inherited corneal opacity
congenital opacity of the cornea occurs in cattle. The animals are not completely blind and the rest of the eye is normal. Both eyes are affected. The lesion is an edema of the corneal lamellae.
corneal laminae
the limiting membranes that separate the bulk of the cornea from the covering epithelia; the anterior is Bowman's, the posterior is descemet's membrane.
corneal lipidosis
cholesterol crystals and lipid vacuoles may be found in the corneal stroma as a result of persistent hypercholesterolemia or chronic stromal inflammation.
melting corneal
see collagenase ulcer.
corneal mummification
see corneal sequestrum (below).
corneal opacity
corneal pigmentation
results from chronic irritation. The melanin is in the superficial stroma and the basal layer of the corneal epithelium. See also superficial pigmentary keratitis.
corneal reflex
a reflex action of the eye resulting in automatic closing of the eyelids when the cornea is stimulated. The corneal reflex can be elicited in a normal animal by gently touching the cornea with a wisp of cotton. Absence of the corneal reflex indicates deep coma or injury of one of the nerves carrying the reflex arc.
corneal ring abscess
an infected corneal ulcer in which there is a surrounding zone of liquefaction encircled by a zone of neutrophils.
corneal scar
corneal opacity.
corneal sequestrum
a central, focal, dark necrotic plaque on the cornea of cats, especially Persians, associated with chronic ulcerative or inflammatory disease of the cornea. Called also focal superficial necrosis, corneal mummification, keratitis nigrum.
corneal shield
protection used in the treatment of corneal ulcers or wounds; commercial products consisting of collagen which is dissolved in the tear film are claimed to enhance healing.
corneal stromal depositions
minerals, lipids or pigment deposited in the stroma following injury.
superficial corneal erosion
see refractory ulcer.
corneal tattooing
done mainly in horses to obscure unsightly scarring of the cornea.
corneal transparency
the quality of being able to see objects through the cornea; partly the result of the strict horizontal lamellal distribution of its collagen fibers, parallel to the corneal surface.
corneal transplantation
corneal ulcer
a defect in the corneal epithelium and some amount of stroma; may be caused by trauma, chronic irritation as from distichiasis, entropion or keratitis sicca, or infectious agents. Deep ulcers can lead to rupture of the cornea, the escape of aqueous humor and often prolapse of the iris with a secondary uveitis and endophthalmitis. See also ulcer.
Enlarge picture
Corneal ulcer in a horse. By permission from Knottenbelt DC, Pascoe RR, Diseases and Disorders of the Horse, Saunders, 2003
corneal vascularization
results from inflammation of the cornea, the vessels growing in from the limbus. It is a necessary repair process but it reduces visual acuity.
References in periodicals archive ?
Accumulation of HDL apolipoproteins accompanies abnormal cholesterol accumulation in Schnyder's corneal dystrophy.
The consultants are still unsure what form of corneal dystrophy Matilda has--although it's suspected that it is Meesmann's.
KEY WORDS: Granular corneal dystrophy Lattice corneal dystrophy Macular corneal dystrophy Pentacam corneal densitometry unit Scheimpflug imaging.
1 August 2014 - Optometry and ophthalmic equipment maker Haag-Streit UK said Friday it had been selected as a sole distributor in the UK of Avellino Lab USA's DNA Test for LASIK Safety for the detection of Granular Corneal Dystrophy.
This edition includes new tables; new imaging techniques like ultrasound biomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography; and new entities like familial anterior-segment dysgenesis syndrome, diffuse keratoconjunctival proliferation, and new corneal dystrophies like zipper cell endotheliopathy, Lisch dystrophy, epithelial recurrent erosion dystrophy, subepithelial mucinous corneal dystrophy, and dystrophia Helsinglandica and dystrophia Smolandiendsis.
Of the three groups with visual limitations, the patients with Fuchs corneal dystrophy were the mostly like to report activity limitation due to fear of falling, followed by those with glaucoma and the AMD group.
of Saarland, Germany), both of whom are ophthalmologists (and they also authored or co-authored several of the chapters), provide a brief preface in which they emphasize that molecular genetics has had an impact on the field, but more research is needed to precisely identify protein defects in the various types of corneal dystrophy and to develop causal therapy.
4) Another suggested mechanism is reduced endothelial function, such as occurs in Fuchs' corneal dystrophy.
Jurkunas, MD, and colleagues that implicates free radical damage in the development of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), a potentially blinding disease characterized by the programmed cell death of epithelial cells in the eye's cornea.
A PROGRESSIVE medical centre has appealed for volunteers to take part in pioneering research into the eye condition corneal dystrophy.

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