Analysis of the porcine UCP3 gene 5'-flanking region (2 kb upstream of the initiation codon) revealed that the core promoter
region is located between nucleotides -870 and -550 and the 2 kb-fragment contains two CpG islands: -1,603 to -1,501 and -910 to -777 (Figure 1).
Basic core promoter
(BCP)/precore mutations and variations of subgenotype A1
HBV genotypes influence clinical outcomes of hepatitis B, clinical course, progression of the disease, chronicity, risk of HCC, mutations in the pre-core and core promoter
regions, seroconversion rates of HBV e antigen (HBeAg), and response to antiviral therapy (7, 8).
Akahane et al., "Hepatitis B virus strains with mutations in the core promoter
in patients with fulminant hepatitis," Annals of Internal Medicine, vol.
Other core promoter
elements such as potential transcriptional start site for the HSPA6 gene were found including the canonical TATA-box, DPE, MTE, BRE, CpG island, palindromic and repeated sequences.
Mutations in certain regions of the HBV genome, such as in the pre-core and in the basal core promoter
(BCP), may disrupt the expression of viral proteins.
In the natural course of chronic hepatitis B, the prevalence of some mutations (e.g., precore stop codon mutations, basal core promoter
mutations, deletions in the pre-S gene region) gradually increases with the progression of disease through the different clinical stages (1,2).
Mutations in the core promoter
region of hepatitis B virus in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
For detection of core promoter
motifs, the DNA sequences that contain promoteric SNPs were screened by the prediction tools, EPD  andElemeNT .
These produce modifications in histone tails and chromatin structure changes that lead to changes in the binding of transcription agents to their respective core promoter
elements, resulting in the activation or suppression of special genes .
To verify this method, they predicted 59 core promoter
regions for 79 miRNAs, which were conserved between human and chicken or between human and zebrafish.
Hepatitis B virus genotypes, subgenotypes, precore and basal core promoter
mutations in the two largest provinces of Pakistan.