The following structures were examined: Biceps tendon, subscapularis, supraspinatus (including test for impingement), infraspinatus, teres minor, posterior glenoid labrum and glenohumeral space, coracoacromial
ligament and finally the acromioclavicular joint.
Coracoid process is a small hooked structure located on the scapular neck that arises anteriorly and serves as attachment for the coracoacromial
, coracoclavicular and coracohumeral ligament, as well as for tendons of the coracobrachial, small pectoral and short head of the biceps brachii muscle.
ligament on the lateral aspect of the coracoid was incorporated into the capsular repair.
ligament surface was fibrillated or rough in all of the patients, indicating the presence of subacromial impingement.
After that, the pectoralis minor tendon and coracoacromial
ligament were detached and the bone was used as a bony block in the anterior inferior glenoid region between superior one-third two-third of the subscapularis muscle (8).
Clinical results of coracoacromial
ligament transfer in acromioclavicular dislocations: A review of published literature.
Subacromial impingement involves compression or mechanical irritation of the subacromial bursa, supraspinatus tendon, infraspinatus tendon, and/or long head of the biceps tendon between the coracoacromial
arch and the humeral head (Figure 2(a))  and is purported to occur at lower humeral elevation angles.
External or "subacromial" impingement syndrome results from compression of the rotator cuff between the coracoacromial
arch and the humeral head.
arch consists of the acromion, coracoacromial
ligament, and coracoid process.
Rotator cuff muscles traverse a narrow space between the acromion and coracoacromial
, ligament above and the humeral head below.
The main mechanism is subacromial impingement of rotator cuff tendons (mainly supraspinatus), long head of biceps tendon and subacromial bursa between the humeral head and coracoacromial
arch caused by repetitive overhead activities of the arm.
1996) Nontraumatic glenohumeral instability and coracoacromial
impingement in swimmers.