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the process of contending with life difficulties in an effort to overcome or work through them. National Conferences on the Classification of Nursing Diagnoses have accepted several nursing diagnoses associated with individual and family coping with the challenge of a client's changing or changed health status, including Ineffective Individual Coping; Defensive Coping; Ineffective Family Coping: Disabling; Ineffective Family Coping: Compromised; and Family Coping: Potential for Growth. See also coping mechanisms.
compromised family coping a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as a situation in which a usually supportive primary person (family member or close friend) is providing insufficient, ineffective, or compromised support, comfort, assistance, or encouragement that may be needed by the client to manage or master adaptive tasks related to his/her health challenge. Compromised ineffective family coping may arise from inadequate or incorrect information; inadequate or incorrect understanding by the family member or close friend; temporary preoccupation by the significant person, who is trying to manage emotional conflicts and personal suffering and so is unable to perceive the client's needs or act effectively to fulfill them; temporary family disorganization and role changes; other crises or situations that the significant person may be facing; failure of the client to provide reciprocal support for the significant person; or prolonged disease or progression of the disability that exhausts the supportive capacity of significant people. Subjective data that could indicate compromised ineffective family coping might include an expression by the significant person of a lack of understanding or knowledge that interferes with effective assistance or support; a description by the significant person of preoccupation with such personal reactions to the client's illness or disability as fear, anticipatory grief, guilt, or anxiety; or expression of a preoccupation with similar reactions to other situational or developmental crises.
defensive coping a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as the state in which an individual has a repeated projection of falsely positive self-evaluation based on a self-protective pattern that defends against underlying perceived threats to positive self-regard. See also ineffective individual coping.
disabled family coping a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as the behavior of a significant person (family member or other primary person) who disables his or her own capacities and the client's capacities to address tasks effectively that are essential to either person's adaptation to the health challenge. The significant person's coping response is disabling if it involves short-term behaviors that are highly detrimental to the welfare of either the client or the significant person. Chronically disabling patterns by a primary person are described as continued use of selected coping skills that have interrupted the person's longer-term capacity to receive, store, or organize information or to react to it. Defining characteristics of this diagnostic category include neglectful care of the client in meeting basic human needs and in the treatment of illness, extreme denial of the existence of the client's health problem, intolerance, rejection, abandonment or desertion of the client, taking on the illness signs of the client, decisions and actions by the family which are detrimental to its economic or social well-being, impaired restructuring of a meaningful life for oneself and prolonged overconcern for the client, neglectful relationships with other family members, and development by the client of helplessness and inactive dependence.
ineffective individual coping a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as the inability to form a valid appraisal of the stressors, inadequate choices of practical responses, and/or inability to use available resources. Many stressors in everyday life can create tension and tax one's ability to cope with them; these include situational crises, crises associated with advancing through the stages of life (childhood to old age), personal vulnerability, multiple life changes, and poor or unhealthy habits of living (which might include inadequate relaxation, failure to take vacations, poor nutrition and lack of exercise, inadequate support systems, unmet expectations, work overload, unrealistic perceptions, and inadequate methods of coping).

Ineffective individual coping may be manifest when a person verbalizes an inability to cope or to ask for help, is unable to meet basic needs or role expectations, cannot use problem-solving techniques, has a high rate of illness or accidents, exhibits destructive behavior toward self or others (including excessive eating, drinking, or smoking), has high blood pressure, ulcers, irritable bowel, or other illnesses related to emotional tension, is a chronic worrier, or exhibits chronic depression.

Nursing interventions are aimed at determining the etiologic factors responsible for ineffective coping, assessing the effectiveness of the coping strategies being used by the person, facilitating an understanding of possible sources and consequences of prolonged challenge to one's ability to cope, supporting the person's strengths and effective coping mechanisms, and offering alternative strategies to ineffective and dysfunctional coping.
readiness for enhanced family coping a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as effective management of adaptive tasks by a family member involved with the client's health challenge, who now exhibits desire and readiness for enhanced health and growth in regard to self and in relation to the client. The family member is willing and ready for enhanced health and personal growth in regard to self and in relation to the client. Evidence that the family member's basic human needs are sufficiently gratified and that his or her adaptive tasks are effectively addressed so that goals related to self-actualization can emerge indicates potential for personal growth. Defining characteristics include an attempt to describe how the client's health crisis has influenced the family member's own values, priorities, goals, or relationships; evidence that the family member is moving toward a lifestyle that supports and optimizes wellness; and expression of interest in contacting another person or group of persons who have experienced a similar situation.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. A thin metal covering or cap.
2. An adaptive or otherwise successful method of dealing with individual or environmental situations that involve psychological or physiological stress or threat.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
Dentistry A metal covering attached to a tooth root or base which is an accommodation or platform for a crown or bridge abutment
Psychiatry A constellation of conscious and unconscious responses that help a person adjust to increased external demands without changing the direction or intensity of his/her goals
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.


In psychology, a term that refers to a person's patterns of response to stress. Some patterns of coping may lower a person's risk of developing Stockholm syndrome in a hostage situation.
Mentioned in: Stockholm Syndrome
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Thin metal covering or cap.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012

Patient discussion about coping

Q. Any tips for coping with fibromyalgia?

A. I agree with the fact getting a better understanding helps but for me coping is finding support, someone you can talk to that is understanding. Accepting the fact you have can't do all the things you use to in the same way. REST...nap durning the day if possible so many people say this interfers with your sleep at night BUT for 2 years I wouldn't lie down and rest b/c I slept so poorly at night latey I have found resting if even 30 minutes helps me make it through my day. My medications help so talk to your doctor and I also if I can't nap durning the day sit and read to give my body a break b/c somedays it is so hard to move! 20 minute walks, warm baths, and herbal tea to help me relax and try to get as much sleep as possible at night. Hope this helps and Good Luck!

Q. How have people coped with dealing with depression? I have bi-polar II mixed disorder and I have been a candidate for no medication. I haven't taken medication for the last 3 years. I've recently been struggling with alleviating my depression.

A. The book is called An Unquiet Mind.
Nicholas, talk to your friends and family, tell them what goes on in your head during episodes, tell them what your journey has been like with this illness. Give them an opportunity to ask questions, teach them what your triggers are. Teach them what you want them to do when you are experiencing a mania or a depression. You are your own best tool when teaching the ones you love about this illness.
Good luck, I am sure if you open up and talk to them about it they will listen and learn, you will make them better people for it.

Q. What are the risks involved in pregnancy due to this and how to cope? my wife is having thalassemia…….she is having anemia too she had blood transfusions often and I am worried about her and want to know ….. What are the risks involved in pregnancy due to this and how to cope?

A. I have thallassemia b minor and my hematocrit was 23 during pregnancy. I was very very unwell. If father has the genetic trait, child can be born with thalassemia and if thalassemia major occurs is as you may know very difficult to deal with.

More discussions about coping
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References in periodicals archive ?
Positive reappraisal was the coping strategy used most by participants (M= 8.44; SD=6.26), followed by self-controlling (M=7.11; SD=5.55), escape avoidance (S=6.53; SD=5.19) and distancing (M=6.56; SD=4.73).
Coping strategies were examined for length of time on HD by quartiles.
In sum, our study primarily focuses on exploring (a) the moderating effect of secure attachment style on the influence of gender role orientations on coping, (b) the moderating effect of secure attachment style on the mediation model of sex, gender role orientation, and coping, and (c) the impact of national culture in the relationships among sex, gender role orientation, secure attachment, and coping.
We define coping as making a conscious effort to minimize stress generated from a problematic situation (Carver, 1997; Feng & Xiu, 2016).
BCS consists of four subscales of Active Avoidance Coping (M = 19.52, SD = 3.43, [alpha] = 0.50), Problem Focused Coping (M = 20.16, SD = 2.59, [alpha] = 0.63), Positive Coping (M = 18.01, SD = 2.31, [alpha] = 0.61), Religious/Denial Coping (M = 9.04, SD = 2.44, [alpha] = 0.60), whereas, complete Brief Coping Scale consists of 28 items (M = 62.25, SD = 13.74).
Findings of table-II shows significant gender differences on score of subscales of BCS i.e., Active Avoidance Coping (t = 3.47, p = 0.001), Problem Focused Coping (t = -1.10, p = 0.049), in overall Brief Coping Scale (t = -2.76, p = 0.007), and on scores of Self-Report measure of Emotional Intelligence scale (t = -3.27, p = 0.001).
A 2 (gender) x 4 (age) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was completed to determine if college men and women differed significantly in non-specific appraised stress, and their reported use of coping strategies.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate differences in perceived stress and coping styles among college men and women.
Certain dimensions of coping have been found to be associated with influencing adjustment and transition quality outside of sport and in relation to wider athletic career termination and soccer career termination specifically.
Within sport, and soccer specifically, several studies have also suggested that these dimensional coping strategies can influence outcomes following career termination and release/deselection.
Students were recruited via an e-mail inviting all registered students at the university to respond to an online survey about stress and coping. The e-mail briefly described the purpose of the research and informed recipients of the voluntary and anonymous nature of their participation.
In comparison, situational coping encompasses coping responses that may change from one situation to another across different stages of a stressful transaction.13 The theoretical framework was developed earlier 14 for conceptualising a general dispositional style of coping by using a wide range of cognitive, affective and behavioural items.