Further, morphine significantly increased the mean diameter of glomerulus and distal and proximal convoluted tubule
Hyperphosphatemia stimulates the posterior liberation of fibroblastic growth factor 23 (FGF23) by osteocytes, which inhibits proteins NaPilIa and NaPilIc in the proximal convoluted tubule
In addition, the increased extracellular and cytoplasmic HMGB1 in CIH rats was gradually attenuated upon pretreatment of sRAGE, as depicted by lessened but mild expression in proximal and distal convoluted tubule
GS is a rare inherited condition of the distal convoluted tubule
that leads to hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis.
It inhibits urate reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule
The diameter of the proximal convoluted tubule
and its opening, size of epithelian cell and its nuclear have no significant changes comparing to the control (see Table 1).
Majority of the tubules are damaged especially proximal convoluted tubules
The proximal convoluted tubule
normally reabsorbs 90% of filtered glucose coupled with sodium and the remaining 10% is reabsorbed by more distal nephron segments (Lang, 1986).
Over time this can lead to hypertrophy of distal convoluted tubule
(DCT) cells and increased distal sodium reabsorption, thus negating the proximal effects of the loop diuretic.
In the CB control rats, the urinary space and the mesangial cells within the glomerulus was swollen due to oedema; while enlarged proximal convoluted tubule
and distal convoluted tubules
Pathologicaly the primary defect is impairment in one of the transporters involved in sodium chloride reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of loop of Henle or distal convoluted tubule
viz, Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) or apical K channel (ROMK) or basolateral chloride channel (ClCNKB).
In most GS patients, the disease is caused by mutations in the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCCT) located in the apical membrane of the cells in the distal convoluted tubule