controlled ventilation


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ventilation

 [ven″tĭ-la´shun]
1. the process or act of supplying a house or room continuously with fresh air.
2. in respiratory physiology, the process of exchange of air between the lungs and the ambient air; see alveolar ventilation and pulmonary ventilation. See also respiration (def. 1). Called also breathing.
3. in psychiatry, verbalization of one's problems, emotions, or feelings.
alveolar ventilation a fraction of the pulmonary ventilation, being the amount of air that reaches the alveoli and is available for gas exchange with the blood.
assist/control mode ventilation positive pressure ventilation in the assist-control mode; if the spontaneous ventilation rate falls below a preset level, the ventilator enters the control mode.
assisted ventilation artificial respiration.
assist mode ventilation positive pressure ventilation in which the ventilator is in the assist-control mode; see also control mode ventilation and assist/control mode ventilation.
controlled ventilation (control mode ventilation) positive pressure ventilation in which the ventilator is in control mode, with its cycle entirely controlled by the apparatus and not influenced by the patient's efforts at spontaneous ventilation.
high-frequency ventilation a technique of mechanical ventilation that uses very high rates (over 80 breaths per minute) and small tidal volumes (equal to or less than dead space); it may either be positive pressure ventilation or be delivered in the form of frequent jets of air. It is used to lower the peak airway pressure applied to the lung, thus decreasing the risk of barotrauma.
high-frequency jet ventilation a type of high-frequency ventilation characterized by delivery of gas through a small catheter in the endotracheal tube.
high-frequency percussive ventilation a type of high-frequency ventilation characterized by delivery of pressure-limited breaths in short bursts of gas from a venturi mask.
high-frequency positive pressure ventilation a type of high-frequency ventilation characterized by low compressible volume circuit and tidal volume delivery of 3 to 4 mL per kg.
impaired spontaneous ventilation a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as a state in which an individual's decreased energy reserves result in inability to maintain breathing adequate to support life. See also spontaneous ventilation.
intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) a type of control mode ventilation in which the patient breathes spontaneously while the ventilator delivers a prescribed tidal volume at specified intervals and allows the patient to breathe spontaneously between cycles. The ventilator rate is set to maintain the patient's PaCO2 at desired levels and is reduced gradually to zero as the patient's condition improves. See also intermittent positive-pressure breathing.
intermittent mandatory ventilation, synchronized (SIMV) positive pressure ventilation in which the patient breathes spontaneously while the ventilator delivers a positive-pressure breath at intervals that are predetermined but synchronized with the patient's breathing.
intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) intermittent positive pressure breathing.
maximal voluntary ventilation (maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV)) the maximum volume that can be exhaled per minute by the patient breathing as rapidly and deeply as possible. Called also maximal breathing capacity.
mechanical ventilation
1. ventilation accomplished by extrinsic means, usually distinguished as either negative pressure or positive pressure ventilation. See also spontaneous ventilation.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the use of an artificial device to assist a patient to breathe.
minute ventilation the total volume of gas in liters expelled from the lungs per minute. See also minute volume. Called also total ventilation.
negative pressure ventilation a type of mechanical ventilation in which negative pressure is generated on the outside of the patient's chest and transmitted to the interior of the thorax in order to expand the lungs and allow air to flow in; used primarily with patients having paralysis of the chest muscles. See also ventilator.
noninvasive ventilation mechanical ventilation that does not use an artificial airway, such as positive pressure ventilation with a nasal or face mask.
partial liquid ventilation ventilatory support in which the lungs are filled to the level of the functional residual capacity with a liquid perfluorocarbon; mechanical ventilation is then superimposed and oxygen and carbon dioxide are transferred through the liquid.
positive pressure ventilation any of numerous types of mechanical ventilation in which gas is delivered into the airways and lungs under positive pressure, producing positive airway pressure during inspiration; it may be done via either an endotracheal tube or a nasal mask. See also ventilator.
pressure control ventilation positive pressure ventilation in which breaths are augmented by air at a fixed rate and amount of pressure, with tidal volume not being fixed; used particularly for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.
pressure support ventilation positive pressure ventilation in which the patient breathes spontaneously and breathing is augmented with air at a preset amount of pressure, with tidal volume not being fixed.
proportional assist ventilation positive pressure ventilation in which the ventilator can sense the patient's level of inspiratory flow and deliver pressure support to achieve a given tidal volume.
pulmonary ventilation a measure of the rate of ventilation, referring to the total exchange of air between the lungs and the ambient air, usually in liters per minute.
spontaneous ventilation term used to denote breathing accomplished naturally, without any artificial aids, as opposed to mechanical ventilation and other forms of artificial respiration.
total ventilation minute ventilation.

con·trolled ven·ti·la·tion

intermittent application of mechanically or manually generated positive pressure to gas(es) in or about the airway as a means of forcing gases into the lungs in the absence of spontaneous ventilatory efforts.
References in periodicals archive ?
Comparison of volume controlled with pressure controlled ventilation during one-lung anaesthesia.
"If you're acquiring this data with an eye toward optimizing an existing BAS or installing one that can take advantage of demand controlled ventilation algorithms, it's a good idea to do the before and after tests with the same equipment," Gustafson explains.
Table 1: Mean & standard deviation of patient characteristics subjected to volume control & pressure control ventilation Data Volume controlled Pressure controlled group group Age (yrs) 33.314 [+ or -] 10.80 37.457 [+ or -] 11.74 Weight (kg) 64.814 [+ or -] 8.92 63.900 [+ or -] 8.47 Height(cms) 163.543 [+ or -] 8.65 162.143 [+ or -] 7.04 Bmi (kg/[m.sup.2]) 24.128 [+ or -] 1.72 24.100 [+ or -] 7.04 The table 1 & Fig 1, 2, 3, 4 shows Mean [+ or -] SD of patient characteristics who were subjected to receive either volume controlled or pressure controlled ventilation. The difference in patient characteristics (age, weight, height & BMI) were statistically not significant.
"Demand controlled ventilation case study on comfort and energy." University of Padua and Swegon AB.
BAS = Building Automation System cfm = Cubic Feet per Minute DAT = Discharge Air Temperature DCV = Demand Controlled Ventilation DOAS = Dedicated Outdoor Air System In.
Objective: To compare the postoperative complications between Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) and endotracheal tube (ETT) during low-flow anesthesia with controlled ventilation.
At this time there were few devices able to assist people with respiratory failure apart from iron lungs, which were cumbersome and expensive, and there was limited enthusiasm among surgeons and anaesthetists for controlled ventilation during surgery.
Accordingly, the three phase project's first phase will be completed by September as the new school year begins and upgrades will include new high efficiency boilers and lighting, weatherstripping and air-sealing of windows and doors, new demand controlled ventilation and retro-commissioning of the HVAC systems.
Pressure Controlled Ventilation - (PCV) A method of ventilation that is time cycled, pressure limited, pressure controlled and patient, (AC-PCV), or machine, (TC-PCV), triggered.
He said: "If my home is affected by radon, then there is an information pack about how I can remedy the problem myself or contact local builders who have received training to sort it out, usually by installing controlled ventilation beneath the floor."
In winter, solar energy is used to preheat fresh air in the controlled ventilation system.

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