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1. a living organism having sensation and the power of voluntary movement and requiring for its existence oxygen and organic food; animals comprise one of the five kingdoms in the most widely used classification of living organisms.
2. any member of the animal kingdom other than a human being.
3. of or pertaining to such an organism.
control animal an untreated animal otherwise identical in all respects to one that is used for purposes of experiment; used for checking results of treatment.
con·trol an·i·mal(kŏn-trōl ani-măl)
In research, an animal submitted to the same conditions as the others used for the experiment, but with the crucial factor (e.g., injection of antitoxin, the administration of a drug) omitted.
1. a living organism having sensation and the power of voluntary movement and requiring for its existence oxygen and organic food.
2. of or pertaining to such an organism.
any movement made by an animal, as a result of neurological reflexes, inherited traits, conditioned responses, physiological influences such as hormone levels, and psychological state. It is also influenced by the physical status of the animal.
a wound caused by the bite of an animal. See also animal bite.
animal boarding establishments
commercial places at which food and accommodation are provided for temporary animal residents at a daily or weekly tariff. They are usually required to be registered by a local government authority so that the premises can be inspected to ensure that the services provided avoid misconduct in terms of animal abuse or cruelty. See also boarding kennels.
see under species and names of individual breeds.
may be by physical means using trap cages or corrals, nets or other devices, or by the use of chemical restraint. Immobilizing agents are injected into the animal by the use of syringes on long poles, or fired as projectiles from guns using compressed gases or explosive devices as propellants, or from crossbows. The constant problem is the avoidance of fatal capture myopathy or exhaustion.
conduct of an animal clinic per se by non-veterinarians would not be an offense under most veterinary statutes but conduct of veterinary practice in the premises by unregistered persons would be.
an untreated animal otherwise identical in all respects to one that is used for purposes of experiment; used for checking results of treatment.
animal facilitated therapy
the utilization of animals, usually companion pets, in the treatment or management of human problems, usually physical handicaps or psychiatric disorders. Acceptance of this form of therapy has widened in recent years and there are many examples of recent and current programs based on placement of animals in private homes or institutions such as prisons, nursing homes and hospitals. Although the benefits derived are difficult to assess, there is general agreement that morale and motivation of patients or inmates is improved as a result of these programs. Guide dogs for the blind, hearing dogs and horseback riding for the disabled are also sometimes included in this category.
food materials for animal consumption.
animal fight injuries
encompass the wide variety of damage that can be done by teeth, horns, claws and hooves, usually complicated by infection.
food for humans of animal origin or containing materials of animal origin. See also animal feed (above).
animal health insurance
comparable to medical insurance in humans. The owner pays a premium in return for disease prevention and health maintenance services at reduced rates. Sometimes used to provide these services to an animal population in a country or state, e.g. Israel, Quebec.
animal health technician
person other than a veterinarian trained in animal health techniques and bearing accredited qualifications.
improvement in production efficiency by genetic means, principally by selection and cross-breeding, to a less extent by inbreeding, all facilitated by artificial insemination and embryo transfer.
includes insurance against loss by death as a financial asset or against loss of function, especially with respect to reproduction in the case of a male animal. See also animal health insurance (above).
a group of animal lovers with activist proclivities who oppose domination of animals by humans. In particular, the movement opposes animal experimentation and close confinement.
must be labeled as being for animal use only. Their manufacture and sale is controlled by legislation in most countries. The objective is to protect the human population and the subject animals also.
animal models of human disease
diseases of animals which are suitable models for diseases which occur in humans; often used for experimental studies.
training programs lasting usually for two years of full-time study are available in most countries for aspiring animal nurses. The term veterinary nurse is used in some countries but avoided in others because of the confusion that it might cause in the minds of the public about who is qualified to do what. Animal nurses are qualified to assist veterinarians to perform acts of veterinary science.
animal nursing auxiliaries
see animal nurses (above).
lard, whale oil, wool fat.
see performing animals.
see animal shelter (below).
protein for animal feed derived from abattoirs, meat-packing plants, fish processors, dairy manufacturers.
animal protein factor
a term previously used for an unknown factor present in feeds of animal origin and necessary for growth in swine and poultry. Now known to be vitamin B12. Called also APF.
a commonly held view is that animals have rights in much the same way as people do. There is no legal support for that view, other than that embodied in legislation dealing with matters of abuse.
accommodation provided for and to maintain custody of discarded and unwanted pets, usually provided by animal welfare societies or local government authorities. An unpleasant corollary of this system is the euthanizing of large numbers of dogs and cats because the amount of accommodation is limited. Called also animal pound.
a person trained in the care of animals including feeding, breeding, housing, training, use, health maintenance. Oriented towards healthy animals in groups or institutions with a particular involvement with laboratory animals. See also animal nurses (above) who are oriented more towards sick animals.
comparable to occupation in humans. Classifications include beef cattle, dairy cattle, dairy or milk goats, fiber goats, wool sheep, mutton or meat sheep, pleasure horse, draft horse, event horse, cattle dogs, companion dogs and so on.
the avoidance of abuse and exploitation of animals by humans by maintaining appropriate standards of accommodation, feeding and general care, the prevention and treatment of disease and the assurance of freedom from harassment, and unnecessary discomfort and pain. A code of practice, aimed at owners and custodians, is necessary for each animal species. A more complex problem, which is still to be resolved, is that of infringement of animal rights in law.
Proper application of the principles of animal welfare includes the continuous surveillance of the environment that human beings provide for animals that are in their care, and the promotion of what are considered by the community to be adequate rewards to the animals for the contribution that they make to the physical and psychological well-being of humans.
animal welfare codes of practice
rules for the care of animals which set out what is expected by the local community of persons who have animals in their care. Not a legal document but likely to be used as a guide by the courts. They specify feeding, housing, surgical alteration, transport and so on. See also code of practice/conduct.