contrast

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con·trast

(kon'trast),
1. A comparison in which differences are demonstrated or enhanced.
2. In radiology, the difference between the image densities of two areas is the contrast between them; this is a function of the number of x-ray photons transmitted or the strength of the signals emitted by the two regions and the response of the recording medium.
4. Performed with a contrast medium.
[L. contra, against, + sto, pp. status, to stand]

contrast

/con·trast/ (kon´trast)
1. the degree to which light and dark areas of an image differ in brightness or in optical density.
2. in radiology, the difference in optical density in a radiograph that results from a difference in radiolucency or penetrability of the subject.

contrast

[kon′trast]
Etymology: L, contra, against, stare, to stand
a measure of the difference in optic density, radiation transmission, pixel brightness, or other parameters between two adjacent areas in a radiographic image. Contrast plays an important role in the ability of a radiologist to perceive image detail.

contrast

Imaging An MRI term for the relative difference of signal intensities in two adjacent regions of an image. Image contrast heavily depends on the chosen imaging technique (i.e., TE, TR, TI), and reflects such parameters as proton density and T1 or T2 relaxation times.

con·trast

(kon'trast)
1. A comparison in which differences are demonstrated or enhanced.
2. radiology The difference between the image densities of two areas.
[L. contra, against, + sto, pp. status, to stand]

Contrast (agent, medium)

A substance injected into the body that illuminates certain structures that would otherwise be hard to see on the radiograph (film).

contrast 

1. Subjective sense: subjective assessment of the difference in appearance of two parts of a field of view seen simultaneously or successively. Hence, luminosity contrast, lightness contrast, colour contrast, simultaneous contrast, successive contrast.
2. 
Objective sense: quantities defined by the formulae for luminance contrast.
Note: Example (c) is better known as luminance ratio (CIE). L2 is the maximum luminance and L1 is the minimum luminance. See spatial frequency; contrast sensitivity; differential threshold.
brightness contrast The enhanced apparent darkening of an area when viewed near, or following a lighter stimulus (or lightening, near or after a darker stimulus).
colour contrast 1. A difference in the appearance of surfaces based on hue or saturation. 2. The enhanced difference in the colour of two surfaces induced by their proximity (simultaneous colour contrast) or successive stimulation (successive colour contrast). The appearance of the smaller area shifts towards the complementary colour of the surround or background. Example: a yellow area appears reddish when surrounded by a green background.
contrast sensitivity function See contrast sensitivity function.
contrast sensitivity test See contrast sensitivity chart; contrast sensitivity.
simultaneous contrast A difference in the appearance of two adjacent areas occurring at the same time.
successive contrast A difference in the appearance of stimuli following each other.
contrast threshold See contrast sensitivity; differential threshold.

con·trast

(kon'trast)
1. A comparison in which differences are demonstrated or enhanced.
2. In radiology, the difference between the image densities of two areas is the contrast between them.
3. Contrast medium.
4. Performed with a contrast medium.
[L. contra, against, + sto, pp. status, to stand]

contrast

radiographically the degree of perceptible difference between two color tones. Black and white images on the one film is said to be high contrast; an all gray film has low or nil contrast.

contrast agents
contrast agents are used for injection into the vascular system for either a local visualization of a system or organ or for outlining an excretory system. Radiolucent (negative) contrast media are gases such as air, oxygen or carbon dioxide. The radiopaque (positive) contrast media include the insoluble salt barium sulfate and a variety of organic iodine compounds.
Barium is used for gastrointestinal studies. Water-soluble, iodinated contrast media excreted by the kidneys are used for many procedures, including all types of angiography and for intravenous and retrograde urography. Those excreted by the liver are used for oral or intravenous cholangiography or cholecystography. New, nonirritant iodine compounds have been developed for myelography. Oily iodinated media are used for lymphangiography and bronchography.
double contrast
the use of two contrast agents or two routes of administration in the one patient. For example, radiopaque dye and then air in the urinary bladder.
contrast materials
see contrast agents (above).
contrast medium
a substance used in radiography to permit visualization of internal body structures. Called also contrast agent, contrast material.
negative contrast
a contrast material that is not radiopaque such as air or carbon dioxide.
contrast pattern
the pattern made by the contrast agent. Includes confined extension patterns in diverticula and similar confined spaces, and unconfined extensions, e.g. in bladder rupture.
positive contrast
the use of a contrast material that is radiopaque such as barium sulfate and iodinated products.
triple contrast
the use of three contrast media or routes in the one patient at the one time.
water-soluble contrast agents
agents used for injection into the vascular system for either a local visualization of a system or organ or for outlining an excretory system. In the past these have consisted mostly of iodine preparations which are irritant and cause tissue damage so that they must be injected intravenously. However, there are now available some recently developed water-soluble iodine preparations that are nonirritant and which can be used in myelography. See also contrast.

Patient discussion about contrast

Q. Has anyone had an allergic reaction to gadolinium dye, MRI contrast agents, I have had a severe reaction. I would like to know the long term effects of this dye. And if anyone else has had or heard of problems and reactions to it. Please answer me. Thank you

A. In 1969 I almost died from the IVP dye. I had no idea I was allergic and when I awoke I was in a "recovery room." The doctor told me to always tell any physicians/paramedics etc of my allergy status regarding the dye. I now have chronic back pain, have a history of cancer in the family and the doctor wants to do a scan (including dye) but when I emphasized that I was allergic he backed off. Now I am wondering if there is anything else that can be done to test the bone (scan) without the dye. Any answers? Thanks

More discussions about contrast
References in periodicals archive ?
Aunque en ocasiones, la Corte lo presenta con dicha titularidad, no deja de advertir reiteradamente que se trata siempre de una "vida en formacion", contrastable con la "vida ya formada" de la mujer.
The idea has been reinforced when we found out in a questioner research in Shiraz city in Iran (Fattahi, 2004) that inside a populated area with several physically contrastable buildings, 87% of applicants noted a famous fast-food shop -which is famous for its kind of advertisement broadcasted in internet and TV channels- as a landmark in their sketches for that .
La discrecionalidad confiada al fiscal, para dar curso o no a la denuncia de un caso determinado, es una caracteristica del nuevo modelo procesal penal que es contrastable con el modelo anterior, en el que cada caso debia ser objeto de pronunciamiento por un juez.
El proposito de esta seccion es desarrollar un modelo dinamico a nivel individual sobre la retencion de los clientes que sea teorica y empiricamente contrastable.
Prueba de las graves consecuencias de esta mala politica era el hecho contrastable de encontrarse en Cartagena todos los efectos de manufactura extranjera un 20% mas baratos que lo que costaban en cualquiera de los puertos habilitados de Espana, lo que acreditaba lo ilegitimo de su procedencia.
En este orden de ideas, los modelos insinuan o predeterminan un modo de explicacion que generalmente es lineal, contrastable, verificable, sobre la base de compromisos teoricos y metodologicos previos.
BXXIX) Por el momento, basta con mencionar que la diferencia introducida por este principio del discernimiento estriba en no relacionarse con el conocimiento de objetos sino con la mera fundamentacion de su posibilidad y no anade nada a la naturaleza, es decir, no crea una referencia contrastable con algo en la realidad (pues esto estaria en el ambito del conocimiento teorico) aun cuando, dentro del uso de su particular principio, nos encontramos en presencia de cierto tipo de conceptos.
Que arriesguen los materialistas filosoficos algun pronostico contrastable y asi podremos comprobar todos que su principio de symploke no es una simple varita magica para explicar cualquier cosa y tambien su contraria.
Y supuesta su relevancia, es en el criterio comparativo donde se encuentra la referencia a la distinta funcion de la relacion propuesta, descriptiva o prescriptiva, segun que la proposicion sea o no empiricamente contrastable como verdadera o falsa (Prieto Sanchis, 1995: 112-115; Ruiz Miguel, 2003: 44 y ss.
En un primer sentido elemental y empiricamente contrastable y entendido el termino en el mas amplio de sus significados, es decir, como un conjunto de costumbres, habitos o estilos de vida (lo que nos permite hablar de diversidad cultural incluso en el seno de una misma sociedad o comunidad de lengua, historia y tradicion), la diversidad de culturas implica un enriquecimiento moral.
Qualitative methodology, and specifically, the analysis of discourse constitutes an alternative that allows us to examine in depth the complex and procedural perception (Miles, 1994) in order to generate a contrastable theory of the process of organ donation from the family perspective.