contracture


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contracture

 [kon-trak´cher]
abnormal shortening of muscle tissue, rendering the muscle highly resistant to stretching; this can lead to permanent disability. It can be caused by fibrosis of the tissues supporting the muscle or the joint, or by disorders of the muscle fibers themselves.

Improper support and positioning of joints affected by arthritis or injury, and inadequate exercising of joints in patients with paralysis can result in contractures. For example, a patient with arthritis or severe burns may assume the most comfortable position and will resist changing position because motion is painful. If the joints are allowed to remain in this position, the muscle fibers that normally provide motion will stretch or shorten to accommodate the position and eventually will lose their ability to contract and relax.

In many cases contractures can be prevented by range of motion exercises (active or passive), and by adequate support of the joints to eliminate constant shortening or stretching of the muscles and surrounding tissues.
Dupuytren's contracture a flexion deformity of the fingers or toes, due to shortening, thickening, and fibrosis of the palmar or plantar fascia.
ischemic contracture muscular contracture and degeneration due to interference with the circulation due to pressure or to injury or cold.
Volkmann's contracture contraction of the fingers and sometimes of the wrist, or of analogous parts of the foot, with loss of power, after severe injury or improper use of a tourniquet or cast in the region of the elbow.

con·trac·ture

(kon-trak'chūr), Do not confuse this word with contraction.
Static muscle shortening due to tonic spasm or fibrosis, to loss of muscular balance, to the antagonist being paralyzed, or to a loss of motion of the adjacent joint.
[L. contractura, fr. contraho, to draw together]

contracture

(kən-trăk′chər)
n.
1. An abnormal, often permanent shortening, as of muscle or scar tissue, that results in distortion or deformity, especially of a joint of the body.
2. A deformity resulting from a contracture.

contracture

Orthopedics A fixed resistance to passive movement of a musculoskeletal unit or joint, usually due to local fibrosis, often caused by prior ischemic insult. See Capsular contracture, Fibromyalgia, Volkman's ischemic contracture. Cf Contraction.

con·trac·ture

(kŏn-trak'shŭr)
Static muscle shortening due to tonic spasm or fibrosis, to loss of muscular balance (the antagonists are paralyzed), or to a loss of motion of the adjacent joint.
[L. contractura, fr. contraho, to draw together]

contracture

(kon-trak'chur) [L. contractura, a drawing together]
Enlarge picture
CONTRACTURE OF THE RIGHT HAND
Fibrosis of connective tissue in skin, fascia, muscle, or a joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint. See: illustration

Dupuytren's contracture

See: Dupuytren's contracture

fibrotic contracture

Contraction of a muscle in which the muscle tissue has been replaced by fibrous tissue because of injury.

functional contracture

Contraction of a muscle that decreases during anesthesia or sleep.

myostatic contracture

Adaptive shortening of muscle, usually caused by immobilization and without tissue pathology.

physiological contracture

A temporary condition in which tension and shortening of a muscle are maintained for a considerable time although there is no tetanus. It may be induced by injury, disease, heat, drug action, or acids.

pseudomyostatic contracture

An apparent permanent contraction of a muscle due to a central nervous system lesion, resulting in loss of range of motion and resistance of the muscle to stretch.

Volkmann's contracture

See: Volkmann, Richard von

contracture

Permanent shortening of tissue, such as muscle, tendon or skin, as a result of disuse, injury or disease. Contracture leads to the inability to straighten joints fully and to permanent deformity and disability. Skin contractures often follow burns.

Contracture

A tightening of muscles that prevents normal movement of the associated limb or other body part.
Mentioned in: Cerebral Palsy

con·trac·ture

(kŏn-trak'shŭr) Do not confuse this word with contraction.
Static muscle shortening due to tonic spasm or fibrosis, to loss of muscular balance, to the antagonist being paralyzed, or to a loss of motion.
[L. contractura, fr. contraho, to draw together]
References in periodicals archive ?
In the prone position, an important contracture of the hamstring muscle group was observed when compared to the contralateral side (Figure 2).
A modified lateral approach for release of posttraumatic elbow flexion contracture. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1999;8:476-80.
JG's surgery involved a transverse incision across the inner aspect of the wrist and release of the burns contracture that extended along the ulna from mid-forearm to the palm of the right hand.
Flexion Contractures were present in small joints of hands and feet bilaterally.
He had contractures of elbows, knees, shoulder and ankle joints restricting the movements of these joints (Figure 2).
Any systematic difference in factors that are associated with contracture rates between urban and rural nursing homes can be a source of the urban-rural disparity.
To treat the contracture, the patient underwent a left ring finger palmar fasciectomy.
When area with glabrous skin is grafted with non glabrous skin it results in poor color and texture match, unsightly donor site scar, contractures, hypertrophy, sub graft fibrosis, painful hyperkeratosis buildup in periphery of graft6,7.
The therapeutic approach to post-traumatic elbow contracture should be individual, patiently and properly dosed, with follow-up of pathogenetic and kinesiology disorders.
One patient needed revision surgery due to capsular contracture after 11 months postoperatively, and another with a history of radiotherapy had to be surgically revised due to skin necrosis after four months.
Although many studies have reported that static progressive orthoses significantly improved the disabilities of patients with elbow contracture, there is still no consensus on the effectiveness and the protocols of static progressive orthoses [8, 16, 18].
Myokymia is defined as muscle twitching of the nature of undulating vermicular muscle movements under the skin without contractures that move the face [1].