Other decisions include whether to use a deterministic (yielding the same outcomes each time the model is run) or stochastic (generating a distribution of likely outcomes on the basis of variations in the inputs) approach and which distributions (e.g., Gaussian or uniform distributions) to use to describe the probable values of parameters, such as effective contact rates and duration of contagiousness
. Furthermore, many of the parameters included in the models used to estimate [R.sub.0] are merely educated guesses; the true values are often unknown or difficult or impossible to measure directly (31,34,35).
On the Contagiousness
of Non-Contagious Behavior: The Case of Tax Avoidance and Tax Evasion, In Joas, H.
Which of these do you think is the best example of the "contagiousness
of action" described at the end of the article?
(2) The world's population is headed toward 11 billion or more by the end of the century (3) in the absence of nuclear war or collision with a large asteroid or the discovery by nihilists of how to combine the lethality of Ebola with the contagiousness
of the common cold.
The unfavorable outcome in these TB patients with prolonged poorly controlled DM poses the risk of extended period of contagiousness
and may transmit mycobacteria to their contacts for a longer period, both before the diagnosis and after the initiation of treatment.
Social taboos of spreading disease via trucut biopsy and if the mother is a breast cancer patient her daughter will get the disease and about breast cancer contagiousness
are all misleading, invalid and insignificant.
of smear positive TB cases is dependent on organism density as well as the rate of conversion with unfavourable outcomes such as death .
of cholera generally is less a unit than the contagiousness
of a single case.
Effect of treatment on contagiousness
of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis.
The outbreak affected more than 3 million hectares of wheat and due to its contagiousness
, the infectious disease significantly reduced the potential for wheat production in the South American region, including Argentina, Paraguay, Colombia, Chile and Bolivia.
These biomarkersmeasurable indicators of the severity or presence of some disease statemight help researchers predict the onset of contagiousness
. Within hours after exposure to a pathogen, for example, a number of genes inside immune-system cells become active.
Several factors contribute to or inhibit the "contagiousness
" of regional conflict and irregular warfare, whether conducted at the interstate, extrastate, or intrastate level Five broad drivers of the diffusion of regional conflict are (1) weak states, (2) anticipated power shifts, regional and domestic, (3) unstable and poorly controlled border regions, (4) large refugee flows, and (5) the religiously-based non-state militant campaign against the state as an organizing principle of world politics.