Since not all generational groups have the same contact language
(French or Turkish) or the same levels of bilingualism with the same language (French and Turkish), and all groups present similar and low percentages of locative ser, then this step confirms that this variation cannot be a consequence of contact.
These paragraphs will provoke the objection that situations of language contact have in fact given rise to a multitude of diverse mixed languages, including ones that structurally resemble Canaano-Akkadian in at least some features, and that therefore Canaano-Akkadian falls readily into a class of contact languages
and should be understood as one.
In this article, I have tried to show that three peculiarities of Nganasan morphosyntax for which sound cross-Samoyedic evidence is absent could be explained by language contact with two potential contact languages
of Nganasan --Evenki and Dolgan.
As for mechanisms of contact-induced influence (Thomason 2001 : 129-156), one can find both unconscious negotiation of structural features between the contact languages
and conscious decision-making.
need pronouns, and personal pronouns are probably among the first things that they need.
It is possible that it results from a semantic split in GYim, especially if the PT contact languages
included some using waga and others *w[a.sup.[eta]]ga for 'canoe.'
As the author of the study points out in the findings of her research, her results on future reference in Livonian and other Finnic languages should be considered as data for further studies in the context of contact languages
. In the case of Livonian, there is an obvious need for a comparative analysis of the data with the Latvian language.
Ndebele borrows lexical and phonological elements from contact languages
. However, due to prestige, colonialism and technological advancement most loans come from English.
In addition to the traditional contact languages
pidgins, creoles, and mixed languages, linguists here examine two new forms: multi-ethnolects and written language intertwining.
Focusing on the lexicon of Yiddish Hasidic children's literatures, Miriam Isaacs examines how the Yiddish of the twenty-first century is adapting to new geographic and social contexts, in particular to its current major contact languages
(English and Hebrew).
707) that contact languages
, such as pidgins and creoles, are extreme cases of quite ordinary contact-induced change: the boundaries between contact languages
and cases of heavy borrowing are fuzzy.