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A language that is no one’s native language, but is used as an auxiliary or supplemental language between 2 or more mutually unintelligible speech communities
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In this article, I have tried to show that three peculiarities of Nganasan morphosyntax for which sound cross-Samoyedic evidence is absent could be explained by language contact with two potential contact languages of Nganasan --Evenki and Dolgan.
20) Therefore, in order for the analogy explaining it as a contact language to be valid, Canaano-Akkadian would have to have been a spoken language.
Gianto's explanation of Canaanized Akkadian as an "interlanguage," a product of the language-learning process which, instead of being superseded through continued learning, became fossilized; see Gianto, "Amarna Akkadian as a Contact Language," in Languages and Cultures in Contact, ed.
They brought a grammaticalization product into the adopting language, which had occurred in the contact language, by copying polysemy in the contact language between the grammaticalized and pre-grammaticalization interpretations of a speech form.
As for mechanisms of contact-induced influence (Thomason 2001 : 129-156), one can find both unconscious negotiation of structural features between the contact languages and conscious decision-making.
If such people were represented in a contact situation, the unambiguously singular me and plural we might well have been favored for adoption in the contact language.
and they provide the reader with a quite detailed overview of Terry Crowley's research on Bislama and the genesis of Pacific contact languages.
West of Eden; botanical discourse, contact languages and translation.
At this she has dealt with the relation between language-internal grammaticalization and changes because of the impact of contact languages (German and Russian).
For many centuries Estonian has been influenced by the example of Indo-European contact languages.