However, mosaic perfusion is predominant with air trapping, which is characterized by constrictive bronchiolitis
and characterized by a low-attenuation lung placed with a normally ventilated higher attenuation lung.
Recently, HRCT scans at suspended full expiration have been used to study air trapping mainly in patients with asthma, emphysema, bronchiectasis, and constrictive bronchiolitis
In contrast, the pathologic findings of constrictive bronchiolitis
can be easy to miss, in both mild disease when findings are subtle and even in severe disease when the airway is obliterated.
With regard to lower airways, the prevalence of bronchiolar involvement ranges from less than 10% to over 60%  and it can present as follicular bronchiolitis or constrictive bronchiolitis
(CB) is a lung disease characterized by fixed airways obstruction and fibrosis of the distal airways or bronchioles, with extrinsic narrowing or obliteration of the bronchiolar lumen.
Consequent open lung biopsy revealed chronic and subacute small airways injury morphologically consistent with constrictive bronchiolitis
. His doctors diagnosed his illness as obliterative bronchiolitis.
"Then the physician is in the challenging position of having to decide whether to send someone for a surgical lung biopsy to evaluate the possibility of constrictive bronchiolitis
because you can't make that diagnosis without a biopsy," Dr.
"Unfortunately, veterans returning from the current wars are unable to obtain service connection for such health problems as constrictive bronchiolitis
, a rare disease caused by exposure to an environmental toxin, as well as cancer, heart disease and most respiratory illnesses" National Service Director Garry T.
Some soldiers serving in the Middle East who develop difficulty breathing--but whose chest X-rays show nothing out of the ordinary--have constrictive bronchiolitis
, a kind of lung damage virtually unknown in young adults.
The ex vivo bronchiolar smooth muscle contraction causes prominent narrowing of the bronchiolar lumen, which may give a false impression of constrictive bronchiolitis
or other small airway diseases, including asthma.
* The clinical illness constrictive bronchiolitis
is described in a