Cone shells contain therapeutically useful peptides including the conotoxins
, and one such peptide, ziconotide, has been approved.
A recent ABC article noted a team of Australian researchers working with conotoxins
from sea snail venom to create a new non-narcotic pain relief drug.
Different concentrations of chemokines CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, or CXCL16 (R&D Systems; 0.1-50 ng/ml) were applied together with BzATP, in the presence or absence of antagonists mecamylamine hydrochloride (100 [micro]M; Sigma-Aldrich), [alpha]-bungarotoxin (1 [micro]M; Tocris Bioscience, Bristol, UK), and strychnine hydrochloride (10 [micro]M; Sigma-Aldrich) or of the conotoxins
ArIB [V11L, V16D] (500 nM) or RgIA4 (200nM) [16-19].
: structure, therapeutic potential and pharmacological applications," Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol.
proteins have many merits, such as low relative molecular mass, stable structure, remarkable activity, high selectivity, and ease of synthesis .
Other chapters describe the characteristics of conotoxins
; cone snail injuries, their treatment, and prevention measures; and the therapeutic and medicinal value of conotoxins
, such as for epilepsy, pain, stroke, and cardioprotection.
The venom from marine cone snails, used to immobilize prey, contains numerous peptides called conotoxins
, some of which can act as painkillers in mammals.
Craik and colleagues have based their findings on conotoxins
, the small proteins contained in cone snail venom that have long been known for its pain relieving properties.
Identification of Conus peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases) and assessment of their role in the oxidative folding of conotoxins
Cysteine-rich peptides such as conotoxins
and insulin-like peptides are an increasingly important class of biomolecules.
considered the replacement of the disulphide bridge by a side-chain-to-side-chain lactam bridge in accordance with observations on several biologically relevant peptides, such as conotoxins
, endothelin-1, and somatostatin analogue that gave interesting results by the same modification .