Patients with mixed connective tissue disease
or having history of smoking or COPD or ILD were also excluded.
Lazzerini conducted a systematic review that identified cases of unexplained complete heart block with a background of connective tissue disease
. This evelaed more than 70% of patients to be positive for anti-Ro antibody (16/21) (7).
It identifies groups of patients, in whom ongoing surveillance for evolving manifestations of connective tissue diseases
is mandatory, in order to improve the outcome and prognosis.
Ferraccioli, "Systemic connective tissue disease
complicated by Castleman's disease: report of a case and review of the literature," Haematologica, vol.
Auto-aggressive Hansen's disease is a rare presentation of lepromatous leprosy or borderline leprosy, which shares clinical features of connective tissue diseases
such as SLE (11).
Undifferentiated connective tissue disease
(UCTD) refers to unclassifiable systemic autoimmune diseases which share clinical and serological manifestations with definitive connective tissue diseases
(CTDs) such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), Sjogren Syndrome (SS), Dermatomyositis/Polymyositis (DM/PM), Mixed Connective Tissue diseases
(MCTD), and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) but not fulfilling any of the existing classification criteria [1, 2].
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So were musculoskeletal and connective tissue diseases
, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and major depressive disorder.
* Inflammatory diseases other than ankylosing spondylitis (including connective tissue diseases
, chronic inflammatory lung and respiratory diseases, etc.),
Dr Edward Vital, right, Associate Professor in Autoimmune Connective Tissue Diseases
at the University of Leeds, said: "Huge advances have been made in the last few decades with lupus but for many they continue to live with the effects of this disease which can be extremely debilitating.
In contrast, ANA positivity supported the relationship between thyroid disorder and connective tissue diseases
. The diagnosis of SSc was ruled out because of the absence of findings suggesting Raynaud's phenomenon, skin and organ involvement, ANA staining pattern (non-centromeric), and anti-topoisomerase (anti-Scl 70).
Many connective tissue diseases
feature similar and overlapping routes of damage, which may be the result of an immune system disorder and/or the weakening of collagen.