conjugation


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conjugation

 [kon″joo͡-ga´shun]
a joining. In unicellular organisms, a form of sexual reproduction in which two individuals join in temporary union to transfer genetic material. In biochemistry, the joining of a toxic substance with some natural substance of the body to form a detoxified product for elimination from the body.

con·ju·ga·tion

(kon'jŭ-gā'shŭn),
1. The union of two unicellular organisms or of the male and female gametes of multicellular forms followed by partition of the chromatin and the production of two new cells.
2. Bacterial conjugation, effected by simple contact, usually by means of specialized pili through which transfer genes and other genes of the plasmid are transferred to recipient bacteria.
3. Sexual reproduction among protozoan ciliates, during which two individuals of appropriate mating types fuse along part of their lengths; their macronuclei degenerate and the micronuclei in each macronucleus divide several times (including a meiotic division); one of the resulting haploid pronuclei passes from each conjugant into the other and fuses with the remaining haploid nucleus in each conjugant; the organisms then separate (becoming exconjugants), undergo nuclear reorganization, and subsequently divide by asexual mitosis.
4. The combination, especially in the liver, of certain toxic substances formed in the intestine, drugs, or steroid hormones with glucuronic or sulfuric acid; a means by which the biologic activity of certain chemical substances is terminated and the substances made ready for excretion.
5. The formation of glycyl or tauryl derivatives of the bile acids.
6. An alternating sequence of multiple and single chemical bonds in a chemical compound in which there is some delocalization of π-electrons.
7. The joining together of two compounds.
[L. con-jugo, pp. -jugatus, to join together]

conjugation

(kŏn′jə-gā′shən)
n.
1.
a. The act of conjugating.
b. The state of being conjugated.
2. Biology
a. The temporary union of two bacterial cells during which one cell transfers part or all of its genome to the other.
b. A process of sexual reproduction in which ciliate protozoans of the same species temporarily couple and exchange genetic material.
c. A process of sexual reproduction in certain algae and fungi in which temporary or permanent fusion occurs, resulting in the union of the male and female gametes.

con′ju·ga′tion·al adj.
con′ju·ga′tion·al·ly adv.

conjugation

The act of being joined together or conjugated

con·ju·ga·tion

(kon'jŭ-gā'shŭn)
1. Union of two unicellular organisms or of the male and female gametes of multicellular forms followed by partition of the chromatin and the production of two new cells.
2. Bacterial conjugation, effected by simple contact, through which transfer genes and other genes of the plasmid are transferred to recipient bacteria through pili.
3. Sexual reproduction among protozoan ciliates, during which two individuals of appropriate mating types fuse along part of their lengths; their macronuclei degenerate and the micronuclei in each macronucleus divide several times (including a meiotic division); one of the resulting haploid pronuclei passes from each conjugant into the other and fuses with the remaining haploid nucleus in each conjugant; the organisms then separate (becoming exconjugants), undergo nuclear reorganization, and subsequently divide by asexual mitosis.
4. The combination, especially in the liver, of certain toxic substances formed in the intestine, drugs, or steroid hormones with glucuronic or sulfuric acid; a means by which the biologic activity of certain chemical substances is terminated and the substances made ready for excretion.
5. The formation of glycyl or tauryl derivatives of the bile acids.
[L.con-jugo, pp. -jugatus, to join together]

conjugation

1. Chemical combination or linkage of chemical groups to organic molecules, often to produce a water-soluble form and allow more ready excretion.
2. The exchange of genetic material between paired single-cell organisms, such as bacteria.

conjugation

a method of sexual reproduction involving the fusion of similar GAMETES which are not freed from the parent forms, as in ciliates where two individuals fuse together, exchange micronuclear material, and then separate. Conjugation also occurs in some algae, e.g. Spirogyra and fungi, e.g. Mucor. The transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells in which the DONORS and recipients come into physical contact is also regarded as conjugation. see CONJUGATIVE PLASMID, SEX PILUS.

con·ju·ga·tion

(kon'jŭ-gā'shŭn)
1. An alternating sequence of multiple and single chemical bonds in a chemical compound.
2. Joiningtogether of two compounds.
[L. con-jugo, pp. -jugatus, to join together]
References in periodicals archive ?
Conjugative plasmids have recently gained attention as potential targets because of the high frequency of antibiotic resistance arising from conjugation, which can be [10.sup.5] times as frequent as spontaneous chromosomal mutation conferring resistance, and indeed resistance against p-lactams and aminoglycosides has been largely spread by conjugative transfer.
In some case the holographic gratings exhibit phase conjugation behavior.
Without denying the significant biblical contributions in the elucidations of the shoresh in nifal and hifil, I was compelled to focus my attention on the semantic and theological importance of the qal conjugation. The majority of the exegetes consider the qal conjugation of [phrase omitted] as having no significance under the theological and semantic dimension of faith as manifested within the narratives of the Old Testament.
To corroborate the self-conjugation ability of the pEAF plasmids, the purified plasmid from a transconjugant colony derived from the first conjugation event was transformed by electroporation into DH5[alpha] using kanamycin as selection marker.
HRPc purification steps were visualized by SDS-PAgE at 12% and then concentrated and dialyzed as cited above in conjugation buffer for GA pH 6.8 or sulfo-SMCC pH 7.5.
If it is assumed that the charge conjugation operator C' applies only to free-particle charges, then from (2) and (3)
Creative Biomart has launched the Protein Labeling & Conjugation Services which can alleviate all challenges faced by researchers in obtaining quality assays, purifications, protein arrays, localization studies, flow cytometry, clinical imaging and etc.
Novozymes and Almac have a solid history of cooperation in peptide and small molecule conjugation projects.
Taurine exerts a variety of biological actions, including antioxidation, modulation of ion movement, osmoregulation, modulation of neurotransmitters, and conjugation of bile acids, which may maintain physiological homeostasis.
Ambrx will use its site-specific conjugation technology, along with proprietary linkers and payloads, to produce optimized ADCs.
Twelve papers from the September 2009 conference consider questions related to impulsive matrix differential equations, non-homogeneous differential equations with Liouville fractional derivatives, Dunkl operators, Fourier-Bessel transformations, and the power-type nonlinear conjugation problem.
We take advantage of the existence of universal Real bundles, namely the canonical bundles over BU(n) with involution induced by complex conjugation, to carry out our construction.