congenital rubella syndrome


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Related to congenital rubella syndrome: congenital varicella syndrome

rubella

 [roo-bel´ah]
a mild systemic disease caused by a virus and characterized by a fever and a transient rash. It is not as contagious as chickenpox or measles, but there are frequent epidemics among schoolchildren, usually during the spring and early summer. The virus is spread by direct contact and by droplet infection. Rubella begins with a slight cold, fever, and sore throat. The lymph nodes behind the ears and at the back of the neck may swell, causing soreness or pain when the head is moved. The rash appears first on the face and scalp, and spreads to the body and arms the same day; it is similar to the rash of measles, although the spots usually do not run together. It fades after 2 or 3 days, although in a few cases the disease may last as long as a week. Called also German measles and three-day measles

If a pregnant woman contracts rubella, especially during the first trimester, the virus can damage the developing offspring. The location and extent of the resulting congenital anomaly are determined in large part by the developmental stage of the embryo at the time of the attack. Congenital heart defects, cataracts, mental retardation, and deafness are some of the more common defects resulting from maternal rubella.
Treatment and Prevention. Except for complications that may result if the disease is contracted during pregnancy, other complications are rare. No special treatment, medicine, or diet is necessary unless the patient has a high fever. One attack usually gives lifetime immunity to the disease, although a second attack does occasionally occur. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends two doses of rubella vaccine for all children, given as combination measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, with doses at least four weeks apart. The first dose should be given when the child is 12 months old. Vaccine is also recommended for susceptible nonpregnant adolescents and adults who do not have rubella immunity.
Congenital rubella syndrome is marked by a triad that includes microcephaly, microphthalmia, and congenital heart disease. From Damjanov, 2000.
congenital rubella syndrome (rubella syndrome) transplacental infection of the fetus with rubella usually in the first trimester of pregnancy, as a consequence of maternal infection (which may or may not be clinically apparent), resulting in various developmental abnormalities in the newborn infant. They include cardiac and ocular lesions, deafness, microcephaly, mental retardation, and generalized growth retardation, which may be associated with acute self-limited conditions such as thrombocytopenic purpura, anemia, hepatitis, encephalitis, and radiolucencies of long bones. Infected infants may shed the virus to all contacts for extended periods of time.

con·gen·i·tal ru·bel·la syn·drome

fetal infection with rubella virus during the first trimester of pregnancy resulting in a series of congenital abnormalities including heart disease, deafness, and blindness.

congenital rubella syndrome

A malformation complex in a fetus infected in utero with rubella; the defects reflect the embryologic stage at the time of infection, with developmental arrest affecting all 3 embryonal layers, inhibiting mitosis, causing delayed and defective organogenesis; maternal infection in the 1st 8 wks of pregnancy causes embryopathy in 50-70% of fetuses; the susceptible period extends to ±20th wk; infection in late pregnancy carries little fetal morbidity Clinical Cardiac defects–eg PDA, pulmonary valve stenosis, VSD, hepatosplenomegaly, interstitial pneumonia, LBW, congenital cataracts, deafness, microcephaly, petechia, purpura, CNS Sx–eg, mental retardation, lethargy, irritability, dystonia, bulging fontanelles, ataxia Lab Viral isolation, IgM antibodies in fetus by hemagglutination inhibition Vaccination Attenuated live virus vaccine between 15 months and puberty; effective antibodies develop after immunization in 95% of Pts. See Extended rubella syndrome.
References in periodicals archive ?
Beginning in 1999, other countries accelerated their strategies for rubella control and the prevention of congenital rubella syndrome. Chile (1999), Costa Rica (2001), Brazil (2001-2002), Honduras (2002), and El Salvador and Ecuador (2004) have conducted mass rubella vaccinations among adults.
The region adopted the goals of measles elimination and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control by 2020.
(%) Total 5,442 (100) Rubella cases per 42.5 1,000,000 population Sex Male 4,213 (77.4) Female 1,229 (22.6) Age group (yrs) <1 24 (0.4) 1-4 94 (1.7) 5-9 68 (1.2) 10-14 118 (2.2) 15-19 304 (5.6) 20-29 1,535 (28.2) 30-39 1,727 (31.7) 40-49 1,103 (20.3) 50-59 396 (7.3) >59 73 (1.3) Diagnosis Clinically diagnosed 1,506 (27.7) Laboratory confirmed 3,936 (72.3) Vaccination status Unvaccinated 1,566 (28.8) Once 263 (4.8) Twice 75 (1.4) Uncertain 3,538 (65.0) Total CRS * cases 5 (100) CRS cases per 1,000,000 4.8 live births Abbreviation: CRS = congenital rubella syndrome. * As of May 1, 2013.
Progress in rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control and elimination--worldwide, 2000-2016.
Burden of congenital rubella syndrome after a community-wide rubella outbreak, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, 2000 to 2001.
M and RI is committed to ensuring that no child dies from measles or is born with congenital rubella syndrome, and achieving the Global Vaccine Action Plan goal of measles and rubella elimination in at least five WHO regions by 2020.
Rubella a viral infectious human disease is transmitted either through large aerosol droplets from person to person or through placenta congenital rubella syndrome with an incubation period of 14 days.
Measles was declared eliminated from the Americas in 2016, following the declaration of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome elimination in 2015.
Measles immunization directly contributes to the reduction of under-five child mortality, and in combination with rubella vaccine, it will control rubella and prevent congenital rubella syndrome.
The disease, known as congenital rubella syndrome, may also cause congenital cataract, deafness, mental retardation, and cardiac defects [2].

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