occurs when the LPS has failed to develop properly and is, therefore, not able to lift the eyelid properly.
Duane retraction anomaly, congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles, horizontal gaze palsy, congenital ptosis
, and congenital facial palsy are the other disorders included in CCDD.
11-14 Brow suspension with autogenous fascia lata is considered as gold standard procedure for congenital ptosis
as it has a long-lasting effect for upper eyelid elevation.
The disorders belonging to CCDDs include Duane syndrome, Mobius syndrome, horizontal gaze palsy, congenital ptosis
and congenital facial palsy.
is commonly caused by a developmental dystrophy of the levator muscle, which elevates the upper eyelid and is present since birth.
Frontalis suspension is commonly performed in severe congenital ptosis
but can also be used in ptosis with neurogenic and myogenic causes.
Ophthalmologist opinion was obtained for ptosis and was opined as isolated congenital ptosis
2% which, comprised of congenital cataract (38%), congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (10%), congenital glaucoma (9%) and congenital ptosis
and amblyopia: a retrospective study of 130 cases.
Another reported feature of this syndrome is congenital ptosis
that in some cases may be associated with hypertelorism and telecanthus [Bamforth and Kaurah, 1992].
7) Other eye diseases include trachoma, orbital diseases, retinitis pigmentosa, chalazion, pseudophakia/aphakia, diabetic retinopathy, congenital ptosis
, optic neuropathy, strabismus, sixth cranial nerve paresis, staphyloma and choroidal melanoma, onchocerciasis and ocular malignancies.
may, therefore, have a negative effect on the psychological development of the child.