congenital heart defect

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existing at, and usually before, birth; referring to conditions that are present at birth, regardless of their causation. Cf. hereditary.
congenital heart defect a structural defect of the heart or great vessels or both, present at birth. Any number of defects may occur, singly or in combination. They result from improper development of the heart and blood vessels during the prenatal period. Congenital heart defects occur in about 8 to 10 of every 1000 live-born children in the United States. The most common types are tetralogy of fallot, patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, transposition of great vessels, and coarctation of the aorta.

In many cases, depending on the severity of the defect and the physical condition of the patient, these congenital conditions can be treated by surgery. However, some are so minor that they do not significantly affect the action of the heart and do not require surgery. The cause of most of these conditions is unknown. Gene abnormalities account for about 5 per cent, and in a small number of other cases they may be seen in a child whose pregnant mother had rubella (German measles) during the first 2 or 3 months of pregnancy.


an imperfection, failure, or absence.
congenital heart defect see congenital heart defect.
aortic septal defect see aortic septal defect.
atrial septal defect see atrial septal defect.
filling defect an interruption in the contour of the inner surface of stomach or intestine revealed by radiography, indicating excess tissue or substance on or in the wall of the organ.
neural tube defect see neural tube defect.
septal defect a defect in the cardiac septum resulting in an abnormal communication between opposite chambers of the heart. Common types are aortic septal defect, atrial septal defect, and ventricular septal defect. See also congenital heart defect.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

congenital heart defect

A structural abnormality of the heart and great blood vessels that occurs during intrauterine development. Abnormalities are commonly classified by the presence or absence of cyanosis. Acyanotic abnormalities include atrial and ventricular septal defects, coarctation of the aorta, and patent ductus arteriosus. Cyanotic defects include tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great vessels, and hypoplastic left-sided heart syndrome.
See also: defect
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
Some of the behavioral problems commonly seen in children with congenital heart defects include difficulties paying attention, hyperactivity, emotional outbursts, anxiety, depression, and difficulty with executive functioning (organizational skills and emotional regulation).
Congenital heart defects, cyanotic, with venoarterial shunt: transposition of the great vessels (GVT), Fallot's tetralogy, Fallot's trilogy, tricuspid valve atresia (TCVA) and others;
Although a randomized placebo-controlled trial is acknowledged to be the highest form of scientific evidence, a definitive randomized trial of periconceptual folic acid supplementation for the prevention of congenital heart defects would be ethically impossible because of the treatment's established effectiveness in preventing neural tube defects.
"We could use blood glucose information to select women for whom a screening of the fetal heart could be helpful," Priest said, adding that modern prenatal imaging allows for detailed diagnoses of many congenital heart defects before birth.
It is not clear what causes most congenital heart defects, although previous research has suggested that factors such as maternal smoking and diabetes may elevate risk.
In general, the three main complications that can stem from congenital heart defects are arrhythmias, valve problems and failure of the heart's pumping function, Dr.
Although few hospital based studies have been conducted at the regional level to show the prevalence of CHD, unfortunately data of the incidence or prevalence at national level that can show the burden of congenital heart defect in our country, is not available.
While some studies have shown a protective effect of folic acid in congenital heart defects at low levels, such as the 0.8 mg used in the early Hungarian studies, other studies indicate that more is better.
Ministry of Health doctors in Makkah have successfully operated on a week-old baby suffering from a congenital heart defect, in a rare kind of heart surgery.
The improved awareness and management of congenital heart defects (CHD) has resulted in increased number of grown up congenital heart disease (GUCH) patients seeking treatment.
rs1801131 AA###9.96 (2.37 -41.86)###T and MTRR 66A>G, associated differently with fetal congenital heart defect. Biomed.
Four-year-old Priyanshu suffers from a congenital heart defect and with each passing day the battle becomes harder to win.

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