alopecia congenitalis

(redirected from congenital baldness)


loss of hair; baldness. The cause of simple baldness is not yet fully understood, although it is known that the tendency to become bald is limited almost entirely to males, runs in certain families, and is more common in certain racial groups than in others. Baldness is often associated with aging, but it can occur in younger men. minoxidil has been approved as a topical treatment for male pattern baldness. Approximately one-third of the men undergoing this therapy have experienced hair regrowth. The effects of the drug take several months to develop and new hair growth may be limited; the hair is lost if treatment is discontinued. Hair transplants are also available to selected patients. Many men opt for no treatment.

Alopecia as an outcome of chemotherapy for a malignancy can be very distressing. The loss of hair usually is temporary and the hair will grow back after the course of treatment is completed. Male patients may feel more comfortable wearing a hat or cap when out in public. Female patients who wish to wear a wig are encouraged to obtain one that is lightweight and the same color as their hair. Having a hairdresser cut the wig to the patient's usual hair style can increase self-esteem. A kerchief or head scarf can be worn around the house if it is more comfortable than a wig. Receipts for wigs, hairpieces, and other headcovering should be saved; they are tax-deductible medical expenses when related to chemotherapy.
androgenetic alopecia (alopecia androgene´tica) a progressive, diffuse, symmetric loss of scalp hair. In men it begins in the twenties or early thirties with hair loss from the crown and the frontal and temple regions, ultimately leaving only a sparse peripheral rim of scalp hair (male pattern alopecia or male pattern baldness). In females it begins later, with less severe hair loss in the front area of the scalp. In affected areas, the follicles produce finer and lighter terminal hairs until terminal hair production ceases, with lengthening of the anagen phase and shortening of the telogen phase of hair growth. The cause is unknown but is believed to be a combination of genetic factors and increased response of hair follicles to androgens.
alopecia area´ta hair loss in sharply defined areas, usually the scalp or beard.
alopecia ca´pitis tota´lis loss of all the hair from the scalp.
cicatricial alopecia (alopecia cicatrisa´ta) irreversible loss of hair associated with scarring, usually on the scalp.
congenital alopecia (alopecia congenita´lis) congenital absence of the scalp hair, which may occur alone or be part of a more widespread disorder.
alopecia limina´ris hair loss at the hairline along the front and back edges of the scalp.
male pattern alopecia see androgenetic a.
moth-eaten alopecia syphilitic alopecia involving the scalp and beard and occurring in small, irregular scattered patches, resulting in a moth-eaten appearance.
symptomatic alopecia (alopecia symptoma´tica) loss of hair due to systemic or psychogenic causes, such as general ill health, infections of the scalp or skin, nervousness, or a specific disease such as typhoid fever, or to stress. The hair may fall out in patches, or there may be diffuse loss of hair instead of complete baldness in one area.
alopecia tota´lis loss of hair from the entire scalp.
alopecia universa´lis loss of hair from the entire body.

al·o·pe·ci·a con·ge·ni·ta·'lis

absence of all hair at birth. May be associated with psychomotor epilepsy [MIM*104130]; autosomal dominant or X-linked [MIM*300042] inheritance.

alopecia congenitalis

congenital baldness in which there may be partial or complete absence of hair at birth.

al·o·pe·ci·a con·ge·ni·ta·lis

(al-ō-pē'shē-ă kon-jen-i-tā'lis)
Absence of all hair at birth, associated with psychomotor epilepsy.


deficiency of the hair or wool coat; may be caused by failure to grow or by loss after growth. There is a significant difference amongst those in which grown fibers are lost, between those in which stumps of fibers remain, and those in which the hair root has been shed from the follicle. See also hypotrichosis, alopecic.

alopecia areata
noninflammatory hair loss in sharply defined areas. A rare condition seen in dogs, cats, horses and primates; the cause is unknown, but immune-mediated mechanisms are suspected.
bilaterally symmetric alopecia
a clinical feature associated with endocrine and metabolic causes of hair loss in dogs and cats, although other causes including self-trauma are sometimes responsible.
cicatricial alopecia, alopecia cicatrisata
irreversible loss of hair associated with scarring.
collar frictional alopecia
loss of hair around the neck occurs in some cats wearing collars. It is reversible when the collar is removed.
color dilution alopecia
color mutant alopecia (below).
color mutant alopecia
a clinical syndrome seen in dogs with blue or fawn coat color caused by the dilution gene at the D locus. Clinical signs include bacterial folliculitis, scaling and hair loss, mainly over the back and commencing within the first year or two of life. Hairs contain clumped melanin (macromelanosomes) with distortion and fracture of the shaft. Seen most often in Doberman pinschers but reported in a number of other breeds. Called also blue Doberman syndrome, fawn Irish setter syndrome. Seen also in many breeds of cattle, especially Simmental, Angus. Characterized by short, sparse, curly haircoats and wispy tail switch. Called also color dilution alopecia.
alopecia congenitalis
complete or partial absence of the hair at birth.
endocrine alopecia
hair loss caused by an endocrine abnormality that adversely affects hair growth. Usually characterized by symmetrical distribution and noninflammatory changes in the skin.
feline acquired symmetric alopecia
a bilaterally symmetric hair loss on the posterior abdomen, inner thighs, perineum and, less consistently, ventral thorax, flanks and forelegs of cats, most commonly neutered males. The skin is usually normal and nonpruritic. The cause is unknown; sex hormone deficiency was previously believed to be responsible, but abnormal thyroid function is also suspected. Some cases are in reality self-inflicted by excessive grooming or the cat's response to unrecognized pruritus. Called also feline endocrine alopecia.
inherited symmetrical alopecia
calves born with a normal haircoat lose their hair over bilaterally distributed specific areas of the skin. See also inherited congenital hypotrichosis.
alopecia medicamentosa
hair loss due to ingestion of a drug.
alopecia mucinosa
hair loss associated with mucinosis of the epidermis and hair follicles.
pattern alopecia
see pattern baldness.
periodic alopecia
a pinnal alopecia observed in miniature poodles. Regrowth usually occurs in 3 to 4 months.
pinnal alopecia
gradual loss of hair on the pinnae until there is total alopecia. Occurs mainly in Dachshunds and may have a hereditary basis.
pituitary alopecia
see growth hormone-responsive dermatitis.
post-clipping alopecia
a failure of hair to regrow, usually for a long period, after clipping. Seen particularly in Chow Chows, Samoyeds and Siberian huskies. The cause is unknown.
postvaccination alopecia and panniculitis
a focal area of hair loss occurring at the site of rabies vaccination; miniature poodles are predisposed.
progressive alopecia, congenital anemia and dyskeratosis
a condition seen in Hereford cattle; affected calves are born with sparse, short kinky or curly hair which is gradually lost. They are also anemic.
psychogenic alopecia
hair loss resulting from intensive self-trauma such as licking or biting and for which no cause can be found. Boredom is often considered a factor. See also acral lick dermatitis, idiopathic hyperesthesia syndrome.
seasonal flank alopecia
a cyclic follicular dysplasia which tends to occur seasonally, mainly in spring or fall. There is a nonpruritic hair loss and often hyperpigmentation of the skin in irregular, defined areas on the flanks and lateral thorax. Many cases regrow hair after 3 to 6 months, but recurrences at the corresponding time in following years is common. Boxers, Airedale terriers, English bulldogs, and Miniature schnauzers are predisposed breeds, but it has been reported in others. Called also cyclic follicular dysplasia.
symptomatic alopecia, alopecia symptomatica
loss of hair due to systemic or psychogenic causes, such as general ill health, infections of the skin, nervousness, a specific disease, or to stress. The hair may fall out in patches, or there may be diffuse loss of hair instead of complete baldness in one area.
traction alopecia
loss of hair due to traction, as occurs in dogs of breeds in which hair on the head is held by rubber bands or barrettes.
traumatic alopecia
that caused by self-trauma (licking, scratching, chewing or pulling); possible in any pruritic skin disease in any species, but particularly severe in cats. The area of hair loss corresponds to those areas most accessible to the form of self-trauma.
alopecia universalis
congenital absence of hair from the entire body. A characteristic of the Canadian hairless cat and Sphinx cat.
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