confounding

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confounding

 [kon-foun´ding]
interference by a third variable so as to distort the association being studied between two other variables, because of a strong relationship with both of the other variables; a relationship between two causal factors such that their individual contributions can not be separated.

con·found·ing

(kon-fownd'ing),
1. A situation in which the effects of two or more processes are not separated; the distortion of the apparent effect of an exposure on risk, brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the outcome.
2. A relationship between the effects of two or more causal factors observed in a set of data, such that it is not logically possible to separate the contribution of any single causal factor to the observed effects.

confounding

[konfoun′ding]
1 interference by a third variable so as to distort the association being studied between two other variables, because of a strong relationship with both of the other variables.
2 a relationship between two causal factors such that their individual contributions cannot be separated.

con·found·ing

(kŏn-fown'ding)
1. A situation in which the effects of two or more processes are not separated; the distortion of the apparent effect of an exposure on risk, brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the outcome.
2. A relationship between the effects of two or more causal factors observed in a set of data, such that it is not logically possible to separate the contribution of any single causal factor to the observed effects.

confounding

when the effects of two, or more, processes on results cannot be separated, the results are said to be confounded, a cause of bias in disease studies.

confounding factor
one which is distributed non-randomly with respect to the independent (exposure) or dependent (outcome) variable which is the subject of an enquiry.
References in periodicals archive ?
All of those descriptions can be fitted onto Anderson's bizarre, fascinating, confoundingly discordant period piece.
Confoundingly, West states that "spotted owls are still at risk .
With a taste for collisions between unlikely subject matter--a head-scratching new artist's book is devoted entirely to alternating images of hockey fights and pieces of fruit, the latter set in strange, Franz West-like lumpy masses of white plaster--Hanson and Sonnenberg have developed an approach that, in its specifics, can occasionally feel like a confoundingly elusive inside joke.
What I want and aim at is confoundingly difficult, and yet I do not think I aim too high," wrote Vincent van Gogh in a letter to his brother Theo in 1882.
He looks to the implacable, vastly diverse and confoundingly magnificent cosmos to inspire him with awe.
By the time it reaches its confusing, strobe-lit and confoundingly cut climax, "Sunshine" has turned from "2001"-style, mind-expanding psychedelia into one immensely bad trip.
So did their flirtation with camp, drag and androgyny, which mixed confoundingly with their Noo Yawk macho swagger and a bounty of female groupies.
Living in a city shrouded by the squalid yellow haze of light pollution, one easily forgets how confoundingly beautiful a clear night sky can be.
Speaking of formulas, the main characters' best friends Stu (Henry Zebrowski) and Lydia (Lenora Crichlow) share a romantic past, confoundingly, their more comical lovehate dynamic offsetting Andrew and Zelda's more intimate rapport.
Still, it's a near-perfect, if sometimes confoundingly dreamy, hothouse concoction of sibling jealousy, incestuous longing and haunted revenge.
First stop after he's released is the casino of the confoundingly named Dorothy Macha (Ray Liotta), who wronged Jake before and whom Jake now humiliates at the tables.
In fact, that's exactly where the surprisingly of-the-moment feeling of these paintings emerges--in a contemporary form of art-that-hides-art that consists of breaking down one's own sophistication into confoundingly ingenuous little observations.