They found associations between each of the selected outcomes and PPIs, suggesting that there was possible confounding by indication
or disease severity that was unaccounted for in their study.
Still, the final results aren't in yet, and this study is limited by a small number of events to date, its retrospective design, and the potential for confounding by indication
We restricted our study population to patients eligible for either treatment and we used an intent-to-treat approach combined with multivariate regression to control for confounding by indication
Various rheumatic disease characteristics are associated with both the outcomes (23) and the choice of drug therapy (24) in rheumatic diseases, introducing significant confounding by indication
in examining drug effects.
That is, channeling of antimicrobial drugs toward such patients may result in confounding by indication
there is confounding by indication
[Greenland and Neutra, 1980]).
These innovative applications include the use of pre/post comparison series designs, dynamic controls for confounding by indication
, visual time plots for evaluating drug indications and study outcomes, and explicit controls for healthy adherer bias.
This indicates that the underlying condition itself does not explain the association with breast cancer, and thus confounding by indication
was adequately controlled for.
The association between vitamin C use and increased cataract incidence could be due to an artifact known as confounding by indication
Confounding by indication
in epidemiologic studies of commonly used analgesics.
Also, there are residual confounding factors, such as failure to adjust for obesity, and confounding by indication
and severity of diabetes.
Understanding the comparative effectiveness of treatments in the community requires valid approaches to control for selection biases such as confounding by indication