confounding


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confounding

 [kon-foun´ding]
interference by a third variable so as to distort the association being studied between two other variables, because of a strong relationship with both of the other variables; a relationship between two causal factors such that their individual contributions can not be separated.

con·found·ing

(kon-fownd'ing),
1. A situation in which the effects of two or more processes are not separated; the distortion of the apparent effect of an exposure on risk, brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the outcome.
2. A relationship between the effects of two or more causal factors observed in a set of data, such that it is not logically possible to separate the contribution of any single causal factor to the observed effects.

con·found·ing

(kŏn-fown'ding)
1. A situation in which the effects of two or more processes are not separated; the distortion of the apparent effect of an exposure on risk, brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the outcome.
2. A relationship between the effects of two or more causal factors observed in a set of data, such that it is not logically possible to separate the contribution of any single causal factor to the observed effects.
References in periodicals archive ?
We argue that a more honest assessment of the IV design is not whether there may be some bias due to confounding, but whether the IV is more biased relative to a study that controls for observed exposure-outcome confounders under the selection on observables assumption.
Epidemiologists examining mixtures must, of course, also consider confounding by variables not considered exposures, including the potential impact of uncontrolled confounding.
Some examples of the postrandomization confounding in CER based on RCTs design we discussed here will help us to propose a viewpoint that the postrandomization confounding could actually impact results of CER.
This is a case of time-modified confounding. Control for C (0) will give a consistent estimate of the C (0)--conditional causal effect of A (0) on B (2), while the effect of A (1) on B (2) can be estimated consistently from the crude (unadjusted) model [Figure 1b].
"However, this does not eliminate the possibility of residual confounding from factors siblings do not share.
Such rhizomatic radicality is not about uprooting our traditions but about exposing them to our confounding togetherness--as species, peoples, genders, sexualities, races, religions, even--Lord help us--our Christianities.
After controlling for confounding factors, patients with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/[m.sup.2] or less had a clinical pregnancy rate of 51% per cycle, compared with a rate of 35% in patients with higher BMIs.
The researchers acknowledge that the relatively high level of health consciousness found among women in the cohort who drank two or more cups a day may help explain the findings, but they add that the robustness of the associations in age-adjusted analyses argues against such confounding.
The flow of money from foreigners living abroad back home to relatives in Mexico continues to grow, confounding the government and analysts alike.
A similar scenario plays out with the confounding Penchant to Drift, an image of a series of painted vertical elements that seem to blossom into three dimensions at both the top of the composition, where they appear to coalesce into a kind of white mesa, and its bottom, where they unravel into a tangle of white and robin's egg blue tape.
In this respect, higher unemployment is not all bad (however confounding it may be to old-line economists).
The ST1 hypothesis not only explains the mechanisms behind the lifestyle risk factors discussed above, namely by confounding with sexual behavior, but also why TB has ceased to be a major cause of death in Western societies.