confounding


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confounding

 [kon-foun´ding]
interference by a third variable so as to distort the association being studied between two other variables, because of a strong relationship with both of the other variables; a relationship between two causal factors such that their individual contributions can not be separated.

con·found·ing

(kon-fownd'ing),
1. A situation in which the effects of two or more processes are not separated; the distortion of the apparent effect of an exposure on risk, brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the outcome.
2. A relationship between the effects of two or more causal factors observed in a set of data, such that it is not logically possible to separate the contribution of any single causal factor to the observed effects.

confounding

[konfoun′ding]
1 interference by a third variable so as to distort the association being studied between two other variables, because of a strong relationship with both of the other variables.
2 a relationship between two causal factors such that their individual contributions cannot be separated.

con·found·ing

(kŏn-fown'ding)
1. A situation in which the effects of two or more processes are not separated; the distortion of the apparent effect of an exposure on risk, brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the outcome.
2. A relationship between the effects of two or more causal factors observed in a set of data, such that it is not logically possible to separate the contribution of any single causal factor to the observed effects.

confounding

when the effects of two, or more, processes on results cannot be separated, the results are said to be confounded, a cause of bias in disease studies.

confounding factor
one which is distributed non-randomly with respect to the independent (exposure) or dependent (outcome) variable which is the subject of an enquiry.
References in periodicals archive ?
Some examples of the postrandomization confounding in CER based on RCTs design we discussed here will help us to propose a viewpoint that the postrandomization confounding could actually impact results of CER.
Figure 1c shows A (0) and A (1) representing exposure at times 0 and 1, and C (0) and C (1) represent time-varying confounding variables measured temporally before times t = 0 and t = 1, respectively.
However, while faulting the social influences theory for not considering other multiple variables in the social environment that appeared to influence tobacco use, the gold standard authors failed to recognize that the Hutchinson Study research design also did not address the potential confounding variables causing these broad ranges.
A possible source of excessive experimental error was confounding effects.
Bouchard is an industrial engineer who acted as chief executive officer of a manufacturing company employing 150 persons before confounding Toptech Groupe Conseil Inc.
In analyzing data from NHANES III and the 1992 Fluoridation Census, the team improved on prior analyses by log-transforming raw PbB concentration and by including information on possible confounding factors missing from the Massachusetts and New York studies.
Given the strengths of their study-notably, the use of two analytic approaches, including one designed to "circumvent unmeasured confounding and reduce its impact"-the researchers contend that "epidemiologic studies of condom effectiveness are probably confounded by unmeasured differences between users and nonusers.
Mishler adds that because many of the islands that his group considered came from volcanic eruptions rather than from ancient landmasses splitting apart, there's no confounding possibility that they originally shared a flora.
To control for age, the data were stratified by age group (0-24 years, 25-49 years, 50-64 years, [greater than or equal to] 65 years); effect modification and confounding were assessed; and the rates within and outside the high crow-mortality areas were compared by calculating a Mantel-Haenszel weighted incidence ratio with Greenland-Robins 95% confidence intervals (CI) in EpiInfo version 6.
Yet ultimately it is De Keyser's ability to establish tension without fixed points of reference (those titles are as teasingly confounding as Robert Ryman's) that allows him so successfully undogmatic an approach.
The landmark 1997 book by that name explored a relatively simple but confounding idea: that industry leaders spent so much time and effort mining (and perhaps dining) their best customers that they were often blindsided by disruptive innovations from smaller rivals or new technologies they might have disdained as too risky,