confound

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confound

(kŏn-fownd′) [L. confundere, to confuse, to pour together]
1. To introduce bias into a research study.
2. To confuse, bewilder, or mystify. confounding, n.
References in periodicals archive ?
Furthermore, an accurate representation of the unmeasured confounders by proxy information depends on the type of unmeasured confounder and is questionable in general.
Conventional statistics are readily implemented provided that confounders are measured once, at the start of the follow-up.
In the above example, the bias parameters needed are the prevalence of the confounder (sensation seeking) among exposed (heavy drinkers) and unexposed (low-level drinkers) and the association between the confounder and outcome (condomless anal sex).
After adjustment for age and season, these variables often acted as confounders or effect modifiers, but in general the associations remained significant.
An example of a sensitivity analysis (26) performed to account for potential residual confounding caused by a hypothetical unmeasured confounder is reported in Table 5.
In choosing a control for the potential confounder of increasing symptoms on medication use, we chose three symptoms that are directly related (locally) to the nose: nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, and dysosmia.
If we didn't know where all of this was going from the first frame, ``Kikujiro'' would be an expectation confounder of the first order.
In this paper a confounder is defined as a variable that wholly or partially accounts for, or masks, an association with a third variable.
The IDMC asked that the data be unblinded and additional analysis be undertaken to assess whether the observed differences were due to randomization failure, a treatment confounder, or a possible study drug effect.
One possible confounder is what might have preceded the fracture.
This revealed that an unmeasured confounder would have to be severely imbalanced between the acid-suppression users and nonusers, by an odds ratio of 10, or would have to increase the risk of CDI by at least twofold to account for this association.