confound

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confound

(kŏn-fownd′) [L. confundere, to confuse, to pour together]
1. To introduce bias into a research study.
2. To confuse, bewilder, or mystify. confounding, n.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Brains Confounded is a revised version of Davies's 2005 edition, which was based on eight manuscripts and the 1858 Bulaq edition.
In the single-exposure analyses, both exposures are confounded by the other; the estimate for [X.sub.1] ([b.sub.1]) is also confounded by U' (Table 1).
A px3x2 design in 6-plot blocks, which provides mutually independent estimates of all the confounded effects, can be constructed by first obtaining a px3 design in 3-plot blocks involving (p-1) replications, by omitting from each block of a pxp design in p-plot blocks involving (p-1) replications all the treatment combinations which contain the last (p-3) levels of factor B.
Robinson's stirring account of the translation of these texts leads to the ongoing story of scripts that have confounded code breakers since the Renaissance, including the Indus script of Pakistan and the ancient country of Etruria.
In 1970, at the height of an established career as a leading Abstract Expressionist, fifty-seven-year-old Philip Guston confounded critics and alienated fellow artists with a show of figurative work: ominous narrative paintings featuring cartoonlike Klansmen.
Samet et al.'s Figure 33 (1) and Schwartz's Figure 4 (3) are consistent with the hypothesis that the estimated P[M.sub.10] (particluate matter < 10 [micro]m in aerodynamic diameter) effects for hospital admissions and mortality, respectively, are not strongly confounded with sulfur dioxide and ozone.
It then confounded forecasts by ending too quickly.
Collura explain how human DNA could have confounded Woodward's analysis.
Factors affecting lung cancer that the researchers didn't measure, such as diet and urbanization, may have confounded their results, Neuberger and his group write.
Human error appears to have confounded the spacing error, the panel notes.
The teams found that the gene contains three other genes within it, none of which appear to play a role in the illness, but which confounded efforts to find the actual culprit.