focuses on the characteristics of the data, which is different from credibility.
To improve the dependability and confirmability
of the findings, the second author conducted an audit to determine whether the thoughts, procedures, and strategies on particular themes were both verifiable and dependable.
When addressing issues of rigour in qualitative nursing research, confirmability
is determined by an audit trail where signposts indicating research decisions and influences are present throughout the study, so that another person can confirm the findings identified by the researcher (Koch, 1994).
Lincoln and Guba (1985) explain that both dependability and confirmability
can be established through a comprehensive auditing process.
in the constructivist paradigm is that the "integrity of the findings are rooted in the data themselves ...
In addition, confirmability
deals with the extent to which a study's findings are the result of the inquiry and not of the biases of the researcher.
The search for disconfirming evidence was a final measure used to increase confirmability
. Transcripts were read again in search of evidence that either confirmed or disconfirmed established themes (Creswell & Miller, 2000).
Table 1.1 Strategies with Which to Establish Trustworthiness Strategy Criteria Credibility Prolonged and varied field experience Time sampling Reflexivity (field journal) Triangulation Member checking Peer examination Interview technique Establishing authority of researcher Structural coherence Referential adequacy Transferability Nominated sample Comparison of sample to demographic data Time sample Dense description Dependability Dependability audit Dense description of research methods Stepwise replication Triangulation Peer examination Code-recode procedure Confirmability Confirmability
audit Triangulation Reflexivity REFERENCES
Two other safeguards for dependability and confirmability
were used--stepwise replication and external auditing, respectively.
(2002) represented Lincoln and Guba's discussion of trustworthiness as credibility, dependability, transferability, and confirmability
. There are qualitative strategies for each aspect of trustworthiness.
Reacting to the Bork struggle, both Presidents Bush and Clinton emphasized confirmability
in choosing nominees.
Lincoln and Guba's (1985) trustworthiness criteria, which roughly parallel the conventional particulate-deterministic paradigm's criteria of scientific rigor, include criteria for judging credibility, confirmability
, dependability, and transferability.