For example, an influential craving theory presented by Ludwig and Wikler (1974) (see sidebar, below) hypothesized that exposure to withdrawal-related cues led to a conditioned withdrawal syndrome, which the alcoholic, through cognitive processes, would experience as craving for alcohol.
Perhaps the most influential model of conditioned craving was developed by Wilker (1948), who hypothesized that stimuli paired repeatedly with AOD withdrawal could become conditioned stimuli that elicited conditioned withdrawal effects, which, in turn, would generate craving.
Conditioned withdrawal syndrome: The experience of physic logical symptoms (e.g., swearing, tremors, and anxiety) of withdrawal from alcohol and other drugs that is nor caused by the actual withholding of the drug but by stimuli that have been associated with previous withdrawal episodes.
Researchers have developed several models--including the conditioned withdrawal model, conditioned appetitive motivational model, social learning model, and information-processing model--to describe the role of urges in relapse.
In contrast to the conditioned withdrawal model, which suggests that urges develop to avoid the unpleasant consequences of withdrawal, the conditioned appetitive motivational model (see, for example, Stewart et al.