Although vanillin has shown comutagenic
effects in some models, its antimutagenic effect (in concentration range in [micro]M) was extensively evaluated and appears to be due to its effects on cell redox and DNA repair pathways (Figure 2).
xanthocarpa extract presents mutagenic potential, synergistic effects that result in comutagenic
activity , has antiproliferative and genotoxic activities using the in vivo Allium cepa root-tip cell test and an increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations , has antiplatelet, antithrombotic, and fibrinolytic activities, may be effective in preventing thrombus formation through several pathways , reducing blood cholesterol levels , has a gastroprotective effect , and reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory processes [16, 17]; it may therefore have therapeutic applications.
The saffron component responsible for this unusual comutagenic
effect was safranal (Abdullaev et al.
Interference by arsenite of the activation of p53 via poly-ADP-ribosylation may be involved in its comutagenic
and cocarcinogenic effects (Yu et al.
Our report suggests the need to be cautious in regard to the use of BJ as well as to perform research about the possible comutagenic
and cocarcinogenic effects between the juice and AOM, incorporating a number of factors, some of which have already been suggested in the above-mentioned reports, such as the influence of different doses, differences in strain sensibility, and the participation of the juice and its components in the molecular events involved in the precarcinogenesis process, as various genetic/epigenetic changes have a role in the transformation of a single epithelial cell within the crypt to the AC formation.
Because cell biology studies indicate that many metal compounds enhance the genotoxic effects of known mutagens such as ultraviolet C radiation, X rays, benzo[a]pyrene, cisplatin, and DNA alkylating agents, it has been postulated that environmental metals are comutagenic
and potentiate the carcinogenic effects of DNA-damaging agents by inhibiting DNA repair processes (Hartwig et al.
On the mechanism of the comutagenic
effect of Cu(II) with ultraviolet light.
A few studies have been interpreted as indicating either mutagenic or comutagenic