complex carbohydrate


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Related to complex carbohydrate: Simple carbohydrate

complex carbohydrate

a polysaccharide, such as a carbohydrate, that is composed of a large number of glucose molecules, so called to distinguish it from a simple sugar.

complex carbohydrate

A carbohydrate characterised by chemical complexity and multiple-side chains of glycogen and fibre; complex-carbohydrate-rich foods include whole grains, brown bread, brown rice, vegetables and beans.

complex carbohydrate

1. A starch.
2. A molecule made of several linked saccharides; a polysaccharide.
ClassificationFormulaExamplesSome Properties
MonosaccharidesC6H12O6GlucoseCrystalline, sweet, very soluble, readily absorbed
PentosesC5H10O5 or C5H10O4RibosePart of nucleic acid, RNA
DeoxyribosePart of nucleic acid, DNA
Disaccharides(C6H10O5)2·H2O or C12H22O11 hydrolyzed to simple sugarsSucrose Lactose MaltoseCrystalline, sweet, soluble, digestible Present in milk
Polysaccharides(C6H10O5)n composed of many molecules of simple sugars. (Since polysaccharides can be composed of various numbers of monosaccharides and disaccharides, n refers to an unknown number of these groups.)Starch Dextrin Cellulose GlycogenAmorphous, little or no flavor, less soluble. Vary in solubility and digestibility.
EnzymeProduced inCarbohydrates DigestedEnd Product
Sucrase (invertase)Small intestineSucroseGlucose and fructose
MaltasesSmall intestine and mucosal cells of small intestineMaltoseTwo d-glucose
LactaseSmall intestineLactosed-glucose and d-galactose
Salivary amylaseSaliva (mouth)Cooked starch, glycogen, and dextrinsMaltose
Pancreatic amylasePancreasRaw and cooked starch and glycogenMaltose
See also: carbohydrate

carbohydrate

a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the latter two usually in the proportions of water (CH2O)n. They are classified into mono-, di-, tri-, poly- and heterosaccharides. Carbohydrates in food are an important and immediate source of energy for the body; 1 gram of carbohydrate yields 3.75 calories (16 kilojoules). They are present, at least in small quantities, in most foods, but the chief sources are the sugars and starches of plants. Herbivores are able to utilize the insoluble polysaccharides (crude fiber) because of bacterial conversion to volatile fatty acids by fermentation in the rumen and cecum.
Carbohydrates may be stored in the body as glycogen for future use. If they are eaten in excessive amounts they are converted to and stored as fat. Rapid ingestion of very large amounts in ruminants and horses causes carbohydrate engorgement.

complex carbohydrate
polysaccharides containing either α- and β-type glycosidic bonds. Usually occurring in mixtures in food.
dietary carbohydrate
the carbohydrate components of food.
carbohydrate loading
depletion/repletion means of maximally loading glycogen into type II muscle for increased power of muscle contraction.
carbohydrate loss
glucose loss in urine due to diabetes mellitus or chronic renal disease.
carbohydrate metabolism
series of related enzymic reactions involved in the synthesis and catabolism of carbohydrates.
carbohydrate tolerance test
see glucose tolerance test.
References in periodicals archive ?
All products derived from naturally-occurring complex carbohydrates are protected by more than 119 patents in 26 countries.
The Complex Carbohydrate Research Center was founded at the University of Georgia in 1985, and is one of only three centers worldwide dedicated to the study of complex carbohydrates, which play critical roles in cellular communication, gene expression, immunology, organism defense mechanisms, growth and development.
A spokesman for Beano said: "Wind caused by food containing complex carbohydrates often makes it difficult for people to enjoy the food they love to indulge in.
Breast milk contains other complex carbohydrates that may protect against disease-causing organisms, says study coauthor Ardythe L.
This discomfort is due to a recently identified, little-known, but highly treatable food intolerance called Complex Carbohydrate Intolerance (CCI).
Complex carbohydrates are foods that will help release energy slowly during the long hours of fasting.
I believe complex carbohydrates should form 60% of your diet.
Rice has a high amount of complex carbohydrates or starch which, if taken in large quantity and not burnt through physical labour, will automatically turn into fat, resulting in weight gain," said Dr Mohammad Anas, a Dubai-based physician.
It is a proprietary polysaccharide to be taken before meals and works in the gastrointestinal tract to block the action of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes that break down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars, reducing the availability of glucose for absorption into the bloodstream.
The book, from drugs company MSD, printed in English and Arabic, features dishes that are rich in complex carbohydrates, which release energy slowly.
Yogurt microbes boosted the ability of intestinal bacteria to break down complex carbohydrates found in fruits, vegetables and other foods, the researchers report in the Oct.
Multigrain foods are high in complex carbohydrates and protein.