UV radiation (UVR) is a complete carcinogen
that elicits a constellation of pathological events, including direct DNA damage, generation of reactive oxidants that peroxidize lipids and damage other cellular components, initiation of inflammation, and suppression of the immune response.
This fact makes tobacco a complete carcinogen
(Alberg & Samet, 2003).
Apparently, asbestos plays a cocarcinogen role in lung cancer, with promoter-like activity and synergism with smoking, whereas in mesothelioma it acts as a complete carcinogen
. Oxygen free radicals appear to have a pivotal role in the process, exerting direct and indirect genotoxic effects on the mesothelial cells (Attanoos and Gibbs 1997; Walker et al.
As regards oestradiol 17a, the SCVPH takes the view that the latest research findings indicate that the substance must be regarded as a complete carcinogen
, as it is both tumour initiating and tumour promoting.
A report released by the EU's Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures said the hormone 17 beta-oestradiol - one of six growth hormones in American beef - "has to be considered as a complete carcinogen
Epidemiological, clinical and biological studies have implicated that solar ultraviolet (UV) light is a complete carcinogen
and repeated exposure can lead to the development of various skin disorders including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers.
In liver cancer research with experimental animals, DEN is used either as a complete carcinogen
or as an initiator in multistage models (5).
The Committee believes recent evidence suggests that even in small doses, oestradiol 17 beta "has to be considered as a complete carcinogen
", exerting both tumour initiating and tumour promoting effects.