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If a number, x, is expressed as a power of another number, y, that is, if x = yn, then n is said to be the logarithm of x to base y. Common logarithms are to the base 10; natural or Napierian logarithms are to the base e, a mathematical constant.
[G. logos, word, ratio, + arithmos, number]
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The slope, m, in Equation 8 comes from a semilog graph with the common logarithm of equivalent time on the horizontal axis.
Thus, in Figure 11, natural logarithms are used instead of common logarithms, while a calculator that provides logarithms to bases other than 10, such as Casio fx-991ES PLUS, is used to demonstrate that the idea of halving the logarithm to find a square root (previously illustrated in Figure 6) is a feature of logarithms in general, not only of common logarithms: the numerical square root of 52 can be found with logarithms to any base.
(b) Can you suggest why common logarithms have base 10?