Of the 2,725 specimens of metallic minerals, only a columbite specimen obtained from Winthrop (from which the element columbium
-- now called niobium -- was first isolated) is still identifiable today.
It was a throat-gimbaled engine, and it was the first engine to fly with columbium
in the nozzle," said Clay Boyce, engineering manager of the Apollo Service Propulsion System (SPS) engine development.
B) containing more than 0.25 percent of any of the following elements; aluminum, chromium, cobalt, columbium
, molybdenum, nickel, titanium, tungsten, or vanadium.
Most of his chemical and mineralogical researches took place between 1796 and 1806, including his most famous accomplishment: the discovery of the element columbium
. He had noticed an interesting mineral specimen in the British Museum which had come from John Winthrop (1681-1747) of Massachusetts by way of Hans Sloane's collection; it proved upon analysis to contain a new metal.
Inconel 718--a nickel-based super-alloy with nominal composition of 62% nickel (Ni), 19% chromium (Cr), 9% iron (Fe), 5% columbium
(Cb), 3% molybdenum (Mo), 0.9% titanium (Ti), 0.6% aluminum (Al) and 0.05% carbon (C).
Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Sulfur Aluminum Weak Very Strong Very Strong Weak Vanadium Strong Very Strong Weak Weak Columbium
Strong Medium Weak Weak Titanium Strong Very Strong Very Strong Strong Zirconium Strong Very Strong Very Strong Strong R.E.M.
I then laid out a program in which the following additions should be made: Cr, zirconium (Zr), cerium (Ce), bismuth (Bi), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb), tellerium (Te) - two levels since it was known to form carbides in iron - Mg and columbium