In laboratory experiments, acute stress has been shown to act on the GI tract by inducing changes in colonocyte
differentiation and decreased expression of mRNA encoding tight junction proteins.
Caption: Figure 3: HOX gene expression during colonocyte
Hong et al., "An increase in reactive oxygen species by dietary fish oil coupled with the attenuation of antioxidant defenses by dietary pectin enhances rat colonocyte
apoptosis," The Journal of Nutrition, vol.
Rombeau, Butyrate and the Colonocyte
. Dietary Fiber in Health and Disease, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1997.
Preliminary characterization of jejunocyte and colonocyte
cell lines isolated by enzymatic digestion from adult and young cattle.
The place of short-chain fatty acids in colonocyte
metabolism in health and ulcerative colitis: the impaired colonocyte
Dietary flavonoids protect human colonocyte
DNA from oxidative attack in vitro.
tests also share the same advantage as FOBTs with respect to being non-invasive, relatively inexpensive, and relatively easy to perform.
Thus prevention is key, because it is hard to rebuild the colonocyte
population once ulcerative colitis has begun.
Butyrate plays many well-documented roles in the intestine including serving as the primary fuel source for the colonocyte
, regulating water and electrolyte absorption and gene expression, providing support of the epithelial barrier, modulating visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility, and ameliorating mucosal inflammation and oxidative stress .
Multiple mechanisms have been proposed, including the overgrowth with a single pathogenic agent, the local production of toxic metabolites, and a modification of the local microenvironment with deleterious consequences for colonocyte
metabolism and mucosal perfusion [7, 10].
DHA alters colonocyte
mitochondrial membrane composition and function to create a pathway for butyrate and other metabolites to induce apoptosis.