The present study shows that function-dependent development controls the differentiation of regions comprised of multiple individuals in a colonial animal.
This study supports the hypothesis that fluid flow controls pattern formation in an external fluid transport system involved in suspension feeding in a colonial animal. This suggests that function-dependent development is important in external fluid transport systems.
Bryozoans or moss animals are colonial animals
that encrust corals and rocky surfaces.
encrust corals and rocky surfaces.
"Coral are colonial animals
that get their vibrant colors from zooxanthellae, algae cells that live in coral tissue," says Richard Curry, science coordinator at Biscayne National Park.
Many of these creatures are soft and gelatinous, from transparent squid, octopuses and jellyfish to large colonial animals
Yet most people don't know that these colonial animals
existed, let alone that they have been destroyed.
When he returned to Outer Falls 3 years ago, "it looked like a hurricane had been through." Boulders had been overturned and the area's slow-growing colonial animals
, which have no natural predators, had vanished.
Colonial animals can be described morphologically as a collection of iterated modules or ramets interconnected by a common vascular network.
Considerable recent work regarding age-specific variation in growth, morphology, and competitive ability has focused on plants (e.g., Lundberg et al., 1996; Bertschy, 1998; Moora and Zobel, 1998), which are similar to colonial animals in developmental mode and morphology (i.e., modular organization).
The tubeworms are the longest-lived known invertebrates-with the exception of colonial animals
such as coral in which pieces may die but the colony lives on.
display a diversity of sexual modes.