However, because none of the participants and none of the student assistants running this study knew anything about our own views on paranormal phenomena, it seems unlikely that the negative correlation between cognitive ability
and beli ef in the paranormal in the present study was due to such demand characteristics.
Despite these cautionary statements, favorable arguments can be found for a relationship between preattentive processes and cognitive ability
. The first stems from the role of visual search in completing both ECTs and intelligence test tasks.
Hypothesis 2: Individuals with higher cognitive ability
will report more positive attitudes, intentions, and performance after the training sessions than before.
However among those low in cognitive ability
, the effect of motivation is limited and possibly even diminished by a lack of necessary aptitude.
Given the evidence for the importance of general cognitive ability
and motivation as stable individual differences and predictors of performance in organizations (e.g., Hunter, 1986; Barrick and Mount, 1991; Carroll, 1992) and the long tradition in industrial psychology of conceptualizing performance as the interaction of motivation and ability (e.g., Ackerman and Humphreys, 1990), it is surprising that there is so little empirical research testing this parsimonious and intuitively appealing proposition.
In addition to the infamous Chapter Thirteen, "Ethnic Differences in Cognitive Ability
," three others center on arguments about black (and, to varying degrees, Latino) inferiority.
In addition, because the person's cognitive ability
level is appropriate to the job, the individual will be neither bored nor frustrated in the position.
Eliminating more intelligent applicants through upper-limit scores on cognitive ability
tests could be better justified if validity studies establish that such persons do, in fact, perform poorer on relevant job criteria (performance measures, supervisory ratings, peer evaluation, or job tenure) than those scoring lower on the test.
(33.) Shearer DL et al., Association of early childbearing and low cognitive ability
, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2002, 34(5): 236-243.
In the latest study, described in the 17 May 2003 issue of The Lancet, a battery of 21 tests that measure cognitive ability
, neurological function, and social behavior detected no major abnormalities.
For several years after the introduction of a revised IQ test, he adds, "two children in the same classroom with the same cognitive ability
could be diagnosed differently, simply because different tests were used for each child."
Given the widespread use of cognitive ability
tests for employment selection in New Zealand, and overseas evidence of substantial ethnic group differences in cognitive ability
test scores, a study was conducted to examine the extent to which cognitive test score distributions differ as a function of ethnicity within a New Zealand sample.