coeliac disease


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coeliac disease

A malabsorptive syndrome caused by hypersensitivity of intestinal mucosa to alpha-gliadin, a gluten extract composed of glutamine and proline-rich proteins that is found in wheat, barley, rye, and oats.
 
Clinical findings
Diarrhoea, copious fatty stools, abdominal distension, weight loss, haemorrhage, osteopenia, muscle atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, CNS and spinal cord demyelination (sensory loss, ataxia), amenorrhoea, infertility, oedema, petechiae, dermatitis herpetiformis (especially if HLA B27), alopecia areata. Occult bleeding occurs in half of patients.
 
Lab
Transaminases (ALT, AST) are increased in ± 40% of patients with CD, which usually normalises with a gluten-free diet; iron deficiency, anaemia due to occult bleeding.

Diagnosis
Duodenal biopsy; anti-gliadin and anti-endomysial antibodies.
 
Management
Eliminate gliadin from diet.

Prognosis
Without treatment, 10–15% develop lymphoma (e.g., immunoblastic lymphoma; less commonly, T cell lymphoma), a risk that increases with disease duration. CD predisposes to gastrointestinal lymphoma and carcinoma of the oral cavity and oesophagus; the otherwise rare small intestinal adenocarcinoma is 80-fold more common in CD.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

ce·li·ac dis·ease

(sē'lē-ak di-zēz')
A disease occurring in children and adults characterized by sensitivity to gluten, with chronic inflammation and atrophy of the mucosa of the upper small intestine; manifestations include diarrhea, malabsorption, steatorrhea, and nutritional and vitamin deficiencies.
Synonym(s): gluten enteropathy, coeliac disease.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

coeliac disease

An intestinal disorder caused by intolerance to the gluten proteins the gliadins, hordeins and secalins in wheat, barley and rye. The intestinal mucosa becomes infiltrated with CD8 and CD4 lymphocytes (T cells) leading to crypt hyperplasia and atrophy of the absorbing VILLI. The result is MALABSORPTION, especially of fats, with fat excretion in the stools (STEATORRHOEA). The condition is also called ‘gluten-induced enteropathy’.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

ce·li·ac dis·ease

(sē'lē-ak di-zēz') [MIM*212750]
A disease occurring in children and adults characterized by sensitivity to gluten, with chronic inflammation and atrophy of the mucosa of the upper small intestine.
Synonym(s): gluten enteropathy, coeliac disease.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Therefore people with Coeliac Disease must learn to check labels to ensure the food is absolutely gluten free.
Twins and family contribution to genetics of coeliac disease. In: Fasano A, Troncone R, Branski D, (eds.).
Review article: the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 17: 987-95.
Coeliac disease is considered an autoimmune disease.
The evidence for reduced BMD in coeliac disease is good.
The classical clinical presentation of a child with failure to thrive and steatorrhoea is now very uncommon among those diagnosed with coeliac disease. The most common symptoms are 'tired all the time' and gastrointestinal symptoms identical to those seen in irritable bowel syndrome.
"While symptoms of coeliac disease can be hugely debilitating, it can easily be treated once fully diagnosed," said Dr Rees.
ENPNewswire-August 15, 2019--Lund University: Association between coeliac disease risk and gluten intake confirmed
Gluten consumption in early childhood is associated with an increased risk of coeliac disease among youngsters genetically predisposed to the condition, a study suggests.
MANAGING COELIAC DISEASE Q I have just been diagnosed with coeliac disease and I am worried about how I will cope with having to change what I eat.