The coccygeus muscle
is estimated between in the direction of 4 and 8 o'clock.
Full term ANOC Anococcygeal raphe B Bladder CCM Coccygeus muscle
CL Cardinal ligament Cx Coccyx EAS External anal sphincter ICM Iliococcygeus muscle Obt Obturator internus muscle Pb Perineal body PCM Pubococcygeus muscle Pm Perineal membrane PRM Puborectalis muscle Ps Pubic symphysis PUL Pubourethral ligament R Rectum U Urethra Umb Umbilical ligament USL Uterosacral ligament Ut Uterus V Vagina Table 2: Biomechanical properties of endopelvic fascia constituents.
(4) Exposure and direct visualization of the sacrospinous ligament coccygeus muscle
complex require adequate dissection of the pararectal space, avoiding injury to the rectum.
The nerve to the levator ani runs within the coccygeus muscle
. In a thin patient, in whom deep bites are taken, the nerve is often injured or trapped.
The relevant anatomy including the ischial spine, the sacrospinous ligament, the coccygeus muscle
, and the lateral side wall with White's line, is identified (Fig.
In all cases the lesion was located within the retrorectal space, which is defined anteriorly by the rectum, posteriorly by the sacrum, superiorly by the peritoneal reflection, inferiorly by the elevator ani and coccygeus muscle
, and laterally by the ureters and iliac vessels.
To relax the coccygeus muscle
that may be tight and holding the coccyx forward.
Also aiding in continence is the levator ani, coccygeus muscles
, and endopelvic fascia, which resemble a sling at the base of the pelvis (Donovan & Terrell, 2018; Koelbl et al., 2013).
(1) The ischioanal fossa is inferior to the pelvic diaphragm, which comprises the levator ani and coccygeus muscles
The pelvic floor consists of several muscles, primarily the levator ani and coccygeus muscles
. The levator ani is further made up of the pubococcygeus, puborectalis, and iliococcygeus muscles.
This diaphragm consists of the Levator Ani (LA) and coccygeus muscles
along with their superior and inferior investing layers of fasciae.
The pudendal nerve arises from sacral nerves S2-S4 and, after passing between the piriformis and coccygeus muscles
, leaves the pelvis through the distal part of the greater sciatic foramen.