But in order to soundly assess these poorly controlled observations, stratification of treatment allocation of pharmacotherapy should be considered in future trials, according to the presence of concomitant enteral nutrition, to better understand the clinical implications of this co-intervention
, or head-to-head randomisation should compare enteral nutrition alone to acid suppressive pharmacoprophylaxis.
These estimates were unchanged after imputing missing data, and estimates of effect in trials with higher loss to follow-up or a possibility of co-intervention
compared with those with lower loss to follow-up and no co-intervention
did not differ significantly (p=0.
There was no known co-intervention
, and the time-period of 2 weeks between the assessments was too short for the acquisition of further experience to explain the improvement.
That factorial trial demonstrated improvement in quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area in response to exercise training--an effect that was still evident even when the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate was used as a co-intervention
One study was not included because it used contact lenses as a co-intervention
method described and appropriate Contamination/ No mention of ways to control score 0; co-intervention
(/4) for contamination or co-intervention
some patients received some score 2; sort of contamination or co-intervention
assumed that no contamination or co-intervention
took place due to immediate follow-up score 3; contamination and score 4.
This study involved very few subjects (n = 17), no significant follow-up period, provided no information with respect to contamination or co-intervention
and provided minimal information on blinding strategies.
Due to the lack of long-term follow-up care and the use of a single treatment intervention, contamination and co-intervention
grading had to be assumed in 4 of the 8 studies which may have further influenced the overall quality of these studies.
The Company's initial results point to the importance of drug delivery systems and the impact of co-interventions
there are no unexpected co-interventions
, such as medications, supplementary therapies, and behaviors during trials.
Using the risk of bias scoring criteria, (23,24) included articles were individually scored based on the following criteria: assignment of patients, similarity of baseline characteristics, use of prognostic stratification, relevance of clinical outcomes/significance, blinding strategies, statistical significance, co-interventions
, compliance of subjects to the study procedures and follow-up levels.
Several risks of bias need to be considered, including but not limited to blinding of participants and personnel, completeness of outcome data, financial interests, compliance and co-interventions