(4) Tumours are generally of low metastatic potential and develop mainly in sunexposed areas implicating UV irradiation as an important co-carcinogen
Activation might underlie the mechanism by which arsenic acts as a co-carcinogen
Some studies indeed have suggested that [beta]-carotene may act as a co-carcinogen
When heated, caramel and other sugars used to flavor cigarettes produce catechol, a co-carcinogen
(a compound that strengthens the effect of other cancer-causing compounds).
Although its carcinogenic mechanism is still unknown, arsenic does not directly cause DNA damage or mutations and is therefore thought to act principally as a co-mutagen, co-carcinogen
, and/or tumor promoter.
Many environmental metals are co-carcinogens
, eliciting their effects via inhibition of DNA repair.
Some of these materials are suspected carcinogens or co-carcinogens
. Common chemicals in fragrance are also suspected of being hormone disrupters.
Fiber may, help prevent certain cancers by reducing transit time in the bowel and therefore decreasing the time the bowel is exposed to potential carcinogens; holding onto water in the intestinal tract, increasing stool bulk which may dilute carcinogen concentrations in the colon; binding with bile acids in the intestinal tract, some of which could convert to co-carcinogens
that are synergistic with carcinogens;
Secondary bile acids do not themselves cause cancer, but they act as co-carcinogens
, increasing the chance of cancer when coupled with true carcinogens.