4) Tumours are generally of low metastatic potential and develop mainly in sunexposed areas implicating UV irradiation as an important co-carcinogen
Activation might underlie the mechanism by which arsenic acts as a co-carcinogen
Some studies indeed have suggested that [beta]-carotene may act as a co-carcinogen
When heated, caramel and other sugars used to flavor cigarettes produce catechol, a co-carcinogen
(a compound that strengthens the effect of other cancer-causing compounds).
Although its carcinogenic mechanism is still unknown, arsenic does not directly cause DNA damage or mutations and is therefore thought to act principally as a co-mutagen, co-carcinogen
, and/or tumor promoter.
Many environmental metals are co-carcinogens
, eliciting their effects via inhibition of DNA repair.
Some of these materials are suspected carcinogens or co-carcinogens
Fiber may, help prevent certain cancers by reducing transit time in the bowel and therefore decreasing the time the bowel is exposed to potential carcinogens; holding onto water in the intestinal tract, increasing stool bulk which may dilute carcinogen concentrations in the colon; binding with bile acids in the intestinal tract, some of which could convert to co-carcinogens
that are synergistic with carcinogens;