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4) Tumours are generally of low metastatic potential and develop mainly in sunexposed areas implicating UV irradiation as an important co-carcinogen.
Activation might underlie the mechanism by which arsenic acts as a co-carcinogen.
When heated, caramel and other sugars used to flavor cigarettes produce catechol, a co-carcinogen (a compound that strengthens the effect of other cancer-causing compounds).
Although its carcinogenic mechanism is still unknown, arsenic does not directly cause DNA damage or mutations and is therefore thought to act principally as a co-mutagen, co-carcinogen, and/or tumor promoter.
Many environmental metals are co-carcinogens, eliciting their effects via inhibition of DNA repair.
Some of these materials are suspected carcinogens or co-carcinogens.
Fiber may, help prevent certain cancers by reducing transit time in the bowel and therefore decreasing the time the bowel is exposed to potential carcinogens; holding onto water in the intestinal tract, increasing stool bulk which may dilute carcinogen concentrations in the colon; binding with bile acids in the intestinal tract, some of which could convert to co-carcinogens.
co-carcinogens that are synergistic with carcinogens;