Apoptosis and autophagy as mechanisms of dinoflagellate symbiont release during cnidarian
bleaching: Every which way you lose.
2010) associated with marine invertebrates such as sponges, cnidarians
, and mollusks (Sfanos et al.
32) Others, although likely not able to be placed into a living cnidarian
group, may be stem cnidarians
, or even stem anthozoans.
The radial structures on the discoids are not consistent in number, size, shape, or arrangement as one might expect among a similarly sized population of cnidarian
Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) is the only species of freshwater cnidarian
in North America exhibiting a medusa stage in it's life cycle.
However, the red or true coral is not the only colonial cnidarian
that is attractive to jewelers.
Fission and the dynamics of genets and ramets in colonial cnidarian
For the functional position of HO, amino acid sequences of HO from cnidarians
, teleosts, human, insects, polychaeta, ascidians, and Syinbiodinium were retrieved from the nr database of the NCBI.
Over the last three decades, frequent jellyfish blooms have been recorded in the oceans, resulting from population increases of cnidarians
and ctenophores (Mills, 2001; Purcell et al, 2007; Brotz et al, 2012).
A total of 78 different species were found throughout this study, including polychaete worms (28 species), bivalves (11 species), amphipods (10 species), crabs (7 species), fishes (6 species), shrimps (2 species), cnidarians
(1 species), and isopods (1 species).
reproduction: assumptions and their implications.
2009) are attributed to intraspecific genetic variation in cnidarian