cloning


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to cloning: Human cloning

clon·ing

(klōn'ing),
1. Growing a colony of genetically identical cells or organisms in vitro.
2. Transplantation of a nucleus from a somatic cell to an ovum, which then develops into an embryo; many identical embryos can thus be generated by asexual reproduction.
3. Replication of genetically identical embryos by microsurgical division of a blastocyst and implantation of resulting cells in animal wombs for gestation.
4. "Therapeutic" cloning: growth of somatic stem cells in an embryo that has been produced by fertilization in vitro and modified by replacement of its nuclear material with DNA from a host with deficient or diseased tissue (for example, heart, liver, pancreas). Subsequent harvesting of the stem cells for implantation in the host subject results in destruction of the embryo.
5. A recombinant DNA technique used to produce millions of copies of a DNA fragment. The fragment is spliced into a cloning vehicle (that is, plasmid, bacteriophage, or animal virus). The cloning vehicle penetrates a bacterial cell or yeast (the host), which is then grown in vitro or in an animal host. In some cases, as in the production of genetically engineered drugs, the inserted DNA becomes activated and alters the chemical functioning of the host cell.
The generation of an exact living replica of an organism’s DNA—DNA cloning—or a cell—cell cloning—produced asexually from a single ancestor
Biotechnology DNA cloning in recombinant technology, DNA manipulation to produce multiple copies of a single gene or DNA segment
Genetics The process of asexually producing a group of genetically identical cells or clones, all from a single ancestor
Molecular biology The production of multiple, genetically identical molecules of DNA, cells, or organisms, which involves reverse transcription of purified mRNA into the corresponding cDNA before insertion into a vector, the synthesis of multiple copies of a DNA sequence, previously introduced into E coli, grown in the bacteria in culture media, removed, and DNA segments of interest isolated

clon·ing

(klōn'ing)
1. Growing a colony of genetically identical cells or organisms in vitro.
2. Transplantation of a nucleus from a somatic cell to an oocyte, which then develops into an embryo; many identical embryos can thus be generated by asexual reproduction.
3. Replication of genetically identical embryos by microsurgical division of a blastocyst and implantation of resulting cells in animal wombs for gestation.
4. Therapeutic cloning: growth of somatic stem cells in an embryo that has been produced by in vitro fertilization and modified by replacement of its nuclear material with DNA from a host with deficient or diseased tissue (e.g., heart, liver, pancreas); subsequent harvesting of the stem cells for implantation in the host subject destroys the embryo.
5. A recombinant DNA technique used to produce millions of copies of a DNA fragment. The fragment is spliced into a cloning vehicle (i.e., plasmid, bacteriophage, or animal virus). The cloning vehicle penetrates a bacterial cell or yeast (the host), which is then grown in vitro or in an animal host. In some cases, as in the production of genetically engineered drugs, the inserted DNA becomes activated and alters the chemical functioning of the host cell.

cloning

specialized technology for the generation of identical copies of DNA molecules or of genetically identical copies of cells or organisms. See CLONE, THERAPEUTIC CLONING, CELL CULTURE, RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY, DOLLY the sheep.
References in periodicals archive ?
Brian Alexander is the author of "Rapture: A Raucous Tour of Cloning, Transhumanism and the New Era of Immortality" (Basic Books, 2004).
The Koreans themselves, while bringing science fiction closer to medical fact, called for a ban on reproductive cloning.
Clonal seedlings that cost significantly more than orchard seedlings will become an obstacle to the implementation of any cloning technology.
The Globe and Mail presented a balanced picture of the risks and benefits associated with human cloning, but the focus group participants clearly had limited hopes for this type of cloning--they saw it as mad science.
The process of human cloning begins with removal of the nucleus from a human cell, such as a skin cell and transferring it to a woman's egg cell from which the nucleus has been removed.
Clonaid officials would not release any information about the cloning customers except to say that none of them are Raelians.
Only 1 percent to 5 percent of cloning attempts succeed.
THERE'S HARDLY AN ISSUE MORE difficult to untangle--or more important to the future of science and medicine--than that of human cloning and stem cells.
Fosmid Cloning is a process of producing genetically identical individuals asexually.
Tribune News Service REMEMBER the human cloning controversies of the early 2000s?