clonazepam


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Related to clonazepam: lorazepam, Rivotril

clonazepam

 [klo-naz´ĕ-pam]
a benzodiazepine used as an oral anticonvulsant; also used as an antipanic agent in the treatment of panic disorders.

clonazepam

Alti-Clonazepam (CA), Apo-Clonazepam (CA), Clonapam (CA), Co Clonazepam (CA), Dom-Clonazepam (CA), Gen-Clonazepam (CA), Klonopin, Novo-Clonazepam (CA), PHL-Clonazepam (CA), PMS-Clonazepam (CA) Ratio Clonazepam (CA), Rivotril (CA) (UK)

Pharmacologic class: Benzodiazepine

Therapeutic class: Anticonvulsant

Controlled substance schedule IV

Pregnancy risk category D

Action

Unknown. May enhance activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid, an inhibitory neurotransmitter in CNS.

Availability

Tablets: 0.5 mg, 1 mg, 2 mg

Indications and dosages

Absence seizures (Lennox-Gastaut syndrome); akinetic and myoclonic seizures

Adults: Initially, 1.5 mg/day P.O. in three divided doses; may increase by 0.5 to 1 mg q 3 days until seizures are adequately controlled or drug intolerance occurs. Maximum dosage is 20 mg/day.

Infants and children ages 10 and younger or weighing 30 kg (66 lb) or

less: Initially, 0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg/day P.O. Give total dosage (not to exceed 0.05 mg/kg/day) in two to three equally divided doses. Increase by no more than 0.25 to 0.5 mg q 3 days until dosage of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg/day is reached, seizures are adequately controlled, or drug intolerance occurs.

Off-label uses

• Acute manic episodes of bipolar disorder

• Multifocal tic disorders

• Neuralgias

• Parkinsonian dysarthria

• Periodic leg movements occurring during sleep

• Adjunctive treatment of schizophrenia

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug or other benzodiazepines

• Severe hepatic disease

• Acute angle-closure glaucoma

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• renal impairment, chronic respiratory disease, open-angle glaucoma

• history of porphyria

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children.

Administration

Be aware that overdose may cause fatal respiratory depression or cardiovascular collapse.

• Give tablets with water, and make sure patient swallows them whole.

Adverse reactions

CNS: ataxia, fatigue, drowsiness, behavioral changes, depression, dizziness, nervousness, reduced intellectual ability

CV: palpitations

EENT: abnormal eye movements, blurred vision, diplopia, nystagmus, sinusitis, rhinitis, pharyngitis

GI: constipation, diarrhea, hypersalivation

GU: dysuria, nocturia, urinary retention, dysmenorrhea, delayed ejaculation, erectile dysfunction

Hematologic: anemia, eosinophilia,

leukopenia, thrombocytopenia

Hepatic: hepatitis

Musculoskeletal: myalgia

Respiratory: increased respiratory secretions, upper respiratory tract infection, cough, bronchitis, respiratory depression

Other: appetite changes, fever, physical or psychological drug dependence, drug tolerance, allergic reaction

Interactions

Drug-drug. Antidepressants, antihistamines, opioids, other benzodiazepines: additive CNS depression

Barbiturates, rifampin: increased metabolism and decreased efficacy of clonazepam

Cimetidine, disulfiram, fluoxetine, hormonal contraceptives, isoniazid, ketoconazole, metoprolol, propoxyphene, propranolol, valproic acid: decreased clonazepam metabolism

Phenytoin: decreased clonazepam blood level

Drug-diagnostic tests. Eosinophils, liver function tests: increased values

Platelets, white blood cells: decreased counts

Drug-herbs. Chamomile, hops, kava, skullcap, valerian: increased CNS depression

Drug-behaviors. Alcohol use: increased CNS depression

Patient monitoring

• Monitor patient for respiratory depression. Assess respiratory rate and quality, oxygen saturation (using pulse oximetry), and mental status.

• Monitor hematologic and liver function test results.

Patient teaching

Instruct patient to immediately report easy bleeding or bruising or yellowing of skin or eyes.

• Advise patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration and alertness.

Caution patient not to stop taking drug abruptly. Advise him to consult prescriber for dosage-tapering schedule if he wishes to discontinue drug.

• Advise patient not to drink alcohol, which may increase drowsiness, dizziness, and risk of seizures.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.

clonazepam

(klō-năz′ə-păm′)
n.
A benzodiazepine drug, C15H10ClN3O3, used to control epileptic seizures and to treat panic disorder.

clonazepam

Pharmacology A benzodiazepine sedative and anticonvulsant used to treat petit mal seizures Adverse effects Drowsiness, ataxia, behavioral changes, hyperactivity, restlessness, irritability, hypersalivation Contraindications Severe liver disease, narrow-angle glaucoma

clonazepam

A BENZODIAZEPINE drug used to control EPILEPSY and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA. The drug is on the WHO official list. A brand name is Rivotril.

Patient discussion about clonazepam

Q. Can clonazepam cause personality changes?

A. Yes, clonazepam can cause personality changes, however it is not one of its most common side effects. More common side effects are drowsiness, irritability and aggression and impaired motor function (coordination, balance) and with higher doses it can cause slight amnesia.

Q. my dad is bipolar II and he was on lithium and clonazepam which had put his mania under control.. hi all…… my dad is bipolar II and he was on lithium and clonazepam which had put his mania under control, but he sleeps a lot, as he finds his sleep refreshing him; which is due to medicine. On stopping the medicines his insomnia like condition starts and so now he takes his doses in excess to sleep…..we were told not to stop on these medicines……is it all right?

A. Over dose of lithium would have serious side effects and especially when the condition demands to have them life long. And if your dad is sleeping a lot, which might be due the intake of clonezepam, which does actually treats insomnia but lithium is used to control his mania. So I feel he can increase on dose of clonezepam, but that too, when his doctor agrees

More discussions about clonazepam
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