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Pharmacologic class: Benzodiazepine
Therapeutic class: Anticonvulsant
Controlled substance schedule IV
Pregnancy risk category D
Unknown. May enhance activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid, an inhibitory neurotransmitter in CNS.
Tablets: 0.5 mg, 1 mg, 2 mg
Indications and dosages
➣ Absence seizures (Lennox-Gastaut syndrome); akinetic and myoclonic seizures
Adults: Initially, 1.5 mg/day P.O. in three divided doses; may increase by 0.5 to 1 mg q 3 days until seizures are adequately controlled or drug intolerance occurs. Maximum dosage is 20 mg/day.
Infants and children ages 10 and younger or weighing 30 kg (66 lb) or
less: Initially, 0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg/day P.O. Give total dosage (not to exceed 0.05 mg/kg/day) in two to three equally divided doses. Increase by no more than 0.25 to 0.5 mg q 3 days until dosage of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg/day is reached, seizures are adequately controlled, or drug intolerance occurs.
• Acute manic episodes of bipolar disorder
• Multifocal tic disorders
• Parkinsonian dysarthria
• Periodic leg movements occurring during sleep
• Adjunctive treatment of schizophrenia
• Hypersensitivity to drug or other benzodiazepines
• Severe hepatic disease
• Acute angle-closure glaucoma
Use cautiously in:
• renal impairment, chronic respiratory disease, open-angle glaucoma
• history of porphyria
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients
☞ Be aware that overdose may cause fatal respiratory depression or cardiovascular collapse.
• Give tablets with water, and make sure patient swallows them whole.
CNS: ataxia, fatigue, drowsiness, behavioral changes, depression, dizziness, nervousness, reduced intellectual ability
EENT: abnormal eye movements, blurred vision, diplopia, nystagmus, sinusitis, rhinitis, pharyngitis
GI: constipation, diarrhea, hypersalivation
GU: dysuria, nocturia, urinary retention, dysmenorrhea, delayed ejaculation, erectile dysfunction
Hematologic: anemia, eosinophilia,
Respiratory: increased respiratory secretions, upper respiratory tract infection, cough, bronchitis, respiratory depression
Other: appetite changes, fever, physical or psychological drug dependence, drug tolerance, allergic reaction
Drug-drug. Antidepressants, antihistamines, opioids, other benzodiazepines: additive CNS depression
Barbiturates, rifampin: increased metabolism and decreased efficacy of clonazepam
Cimetidine, disulfiram, fluoxetine, hormonal contraceptives, isoniazid, ketoconazole, metoprolol, propoxyphene, propranolol, valproic acid: decreased clonazepam metabolism
Phenytoin: decreased clonazepam blood level
Drug-diagnostic tests. Eosinophils, liver function tests: increased values
Platelets, white blood cells: decreased counts
Drug-herbs. Chamomile, hops, kava, skullcap, valerian: increased CNS depression
Drug-behaviors. Alcohol use: increased CNS depression
• Monitor patient for respiratory depression. Assess respiratory rate and quality, oxygen saturation (using pulse oximetry), and mental status.
• Monitor hematologic and liver function test results.
☞ Instruct patient to immediately report easy bleeding or bruising or yellowing of skin or eyes.
• Advise patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration and alertness.
☞ Caution patient not to stop taking drug abruptly. Advise him to consult prescriber for dosage-tapering schedule if he wishes to discontinue drug.
• Advise patient not to drink alcohol, which may increase drowsiness, dizziness, and risk of seizures.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.
clonazepam/clo·naz·e·pam/ (klo-naz´ĕ-pam) a benzodiazepine used as an anticonvulsant and as an antipanic agent.
clonazepamPharmacology A benzodiazepine sedative and anticonvulsant used to treat petit mal seizures Adverse effects Drowsiness, ataxia, behavioral changes, hyperactivity, restlessness, irritability, hypersalivation Contraindications Severe liver disease, narrow-angle glaucoma
clonazepamA BENZODIAZEPINE drug used to control EPILEPSY and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA. The drug is on the WHO official list. A brand name is Rivotril.
drug class: anticonvulsant, benzodiazepine derivative, controlled substance schedule IV;
action: inhibits spike-wave formation;
uses: akinetic myoclonic seizures.
Patient discussion about clonazepam
Q. Can clonazepam cause personality changes?
Q. my dad is bipolar II and he was on lithium and clonazepam which had put his mania under control.. hi all…… my dad is bipolar II and he was on lithium and clonazepam which had put his mania under control, but he sleeps a lot, as he finds his sleep refreshing him; which is due to medicine. On stopping the medicines his insomnia like condition starts and so now he takes his doses in excess to sleep…..we were told not to stop on these medicines……is it all right?