Resent pilot studies on three generations in Sudanese families have shown gradual decline in infibulations from grandmothers to mothers to daughters; with a reversed situation for clitoridectomies. There is also a clear gradual decline in circumcision at large from grandmothers to mothers to daughters; with a reversed situation for non-circumcision.
The historical overall prevalence of FGM practiced in Sudan, decline in infibulations and concomitant rise in clitoridectomies have been graphically extrapolated from published literature on the national surveys carried out in the Sudan.
Graphical extrapolation of records of previous national surveys (1979-2001) have shown a clear concomitant gradual decline in infibulations and rise in clitoridectomies (Figure 2).
* Nevertheless, graphical extrapolation of results of prevalence of FGM between 1979 and 2001 has shown a shift in the practice with clear gradual decline in infibulations and concomitant gradual rise in clitoridectomies.
* Moreover, historical graphical extrapolation of prevalence of FGM in Sudan by types between 1979 and 2001 has shown gradual decline in infibulations (Pharaonic circumcision), gradual disappearance of Intermediate circumcision and concomitant gradual rise in clitoridectomies and non-circumcision.
There is clear gradual decline in infibulations from grandmothers to mothers to daughters; with a reversed situations for clitoridectomies. There is also a clear gradually decline in circumcision from grandmothers to mothers to daughters; with a reversed situation for non-circumcision.
In his decision, Judge Kendall Warren called clitoridectomies
"cruel, painful, and dangerous."
Angier also draws attention to current US medical practices of "clitoral excision." This operation, performed to prevent the terror a girl would supposedly experience at having an unusually large clitoris (with no research on which to base this surmise), is much like clitoridectomies
performed, for ritual reasons, in some parts of Africa.
, removal of parts of the female genitalia, were historically performed in Western medicine as a supposed cure for a wide variety of "female ailments." See Isaac Baker-Brown, "On Some Diseases of Woman Admitting Surgical Treatment," 1866; reprinted in The Sexuality Debates, ed.
Were women asked, in the interests of multi-culturalism, to lobby to have Medicare cover the cost of clitoridectomies
, we would have a further dilemma.
Greer's anthropological fantasies--which led her to praise the "chivalric' Masai tribesmen for their sexual thoughtfulness, despite the fact that her own book acknowledges, 100 pages later, that Masai women were routinely given clitoridectomies
--were particularly disturbing.
Consequently, recent forms of clitoridectomies
practiced in the Sudan might fit in WHO (1996) Type I FGM.