Genderwise correlations revealed significant positive correlation of gingival index with age, (p < 0.001), BMI (p < 0.001), HbA1c (p < 0.001), pocket depth (p < 0.001), and clinical attachment level
(p < 0.001) in males.
The periodontal probing depth and clinical attachment levels
were measured at six sites, and the mean values were calculated for each individual in the healthy, smoker and never-smoker groups with periodontitis (Table 1).
Probing depth, Recession depth and clinical attachment level
were recorded on the 24th week.
Means and standard deviations of the clinical variables stratified by study groups (PD: probing depth, CAL: clinical attachment level
, PI: plaque index, BOP: bleeding on probing, PBI: papilla bleeding index, Y: young, MA: middle aged).
Probing Depth (PD), was measured on the mid-facial aspect from the gingival margin to the base of the sulcus/periodontal pocket and clinical attachment level
was measured from the Cemento-Enamel Junction (CEJ) to the base of the sulcus/pocket on the mid-facial aspect.
Clinical parameters i.e plaque index, calculus index, gingival index, clinical attachment level
and papillary bleeding index of all the selected subjects were recorded.
Weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the clinical attachment level
(CAL), probing depth (PD), and changes in plaque index (PI) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF).
Probing Depth (PD) and Clinical Attachment Level
(CAL) were recorded.
All study participants were between 35 and 76 years of age, presented at least 15 teeth, and were diagnosed as having chronic periodontitis, i.e., the presence of [greater than or equal to] 4 sites in 3 different teeth with clinical attachment level
(CAL) [greater than or equal to] 4 mm and bleeding on probing (BOP).
Some of the studies define periodontal disease by examining clinical attachment level
(4), (7) while others define periodontal disease as the presence of periodontal pockets of a certain depth, with bleeding on probing considered as a factor.
Similarly, baseline mean clinical attachment level
(CAL) was 6.05 mm in the test group and 6.03 mm in the control group.
The examination consisted of the assessments of the plaque index (PI)10 and bleeding upon probing (BOP).11 Probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level
(CAL) were also recorded on six sites per tooth (mesiobuccal, midbuccal, distobuccal, mesiolingual, midlingual, and distolingual) using the manual periodontal probe (Wil- liams, Hu Friedy, USA).