Serrano, "Reproductive aspects of Meloetyphlus fuscatus a meloid beetle cleptoparasite
of the bee Eulaema nigrita (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini)," Apidologie, vol.
Biology, immature development, and adaptive behavior of Stelis montana, a cleptoparasite
of Osmia (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).
group Sphecodes heraclei Predator of Apoidea Robertson (cleptoparasite
) Megachilidae Coelioxys sayi Predator of Megachilidae Robertson (cleptoparasite
) Dianthidium Nectar & pollen floridiense Schwarz Megachile Nectar & pollen policarius Say Megachile Nectar & pollen xylocopoides Smith Apidae Apis mellifera Nectar & pollen Linnaeus Bombus impatiens Nectar & pollen Cresson Bombus Nectar & pollen pennsylvanicus (DeGeer) Epeolus erigeronis Predator of Apoidea Mitchell (cleptoparasite
) Epeolus glabratus Predator of Apoidea Cresson (cleptoparasite
) Epeolus zonatus Predator of Apoidea Smith (cleptoparasite
) Order/Family Species Source Blattaria Blattidae Eurycotis floridana (F.
The biology of Pseudorhyssa sternata Merrill (Hym., Ichneumonidae), a cleptoparasite
of siricid woodwasps.
This percentage is high relative to the latitudinal gradient of cleptoparasite
composition of bee populations, in which larger proportions are found in more northern regions (Wcislo 1987).
The male then pulled the cleptoparasite
by the mandibles and legs and sometimes by the antennae, trying to remove it from inside the nest.
Females of this species are cleptoparasites
of Eufriesea and Eulaema nests (Moure, 1964).
Response Maximum likelihood variable Parameter (d.f.) estimate ([+ or -] SE) sex of cell position (1) 1.39 [+ or -] 0.20 offspring number cells / nest (1) -0.89 [+ or -] 0.20 nest diameter (1) -0.49 [+ or -] 0.43 presence/absence of -0.96 [+ or -] 0.55 cleptoparasites
(1) Response Wald chi- variable Parameter (d.f.) square Probability sex of cell position (1) 46.4 P < 0.001 offspring number cells / nest (1) 18.95 P < 0.001 nest diameter (1) 1.33 P = 0.25 presence/absence of 3 P = 0.08 cleptoparasites
(1) 95% Wald Response Odds confidence variable Parameter (d.f.) ratio limits sex of cell position (1) 4.01 2.69, 5.97 offspring number cells / nest (1) 0.41 0.28, 0.61 nest diameter (1) 0.61 0.27, 1.41 presence/absence of 0.38 0.13, 1.13 cleptoparasites
Only in one case did the larva show signs of mortality because, apart from the high number of immature cleptoparasites
, there were 53 adult flies feeding on prey body fluids.
Since they need to spend more time to collect and transport these materials, their prey is likely to be exposed to parasitoids and cleptoparasites
. In addition, large diameter closures tend to be more fragile and vulnerable to attacks by natural enemies.
They comprise more than 200 described species, distributed into five genera (Nemesio and Rasmussen, 2011), two of which are exclusively cleptoparasites
(revision in Nemesio and Silveira, 2006a).