the production of small, inconspicuous flowers in which self-fertilization occurs before the flowers open. For example, the violet forms large, showy, cross-pollinating flowers, but also forms cleistogamic flowers late in the summer.
To establish baseline data on the size of Epifagus plants, large populations ([less than or equal to] 40 plants) were randomly sampled (all plant numbers ending in 2) and measured for the following morphological characteristics: plant height (cm), number of branches, number of chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers, and distance (cm) to nearest host tree.
Based on the results, it can be concluded that papaya pollen grains are of lipidic nature and papaya hermaphrodite plants are cleistogamous, and the preferential mode of reproduction is facultative selfpollination.
Censuses were conducted every other day for date of emergence (defined as the date at which green cotyledons could be seen above the soil surface), date of establishment (defined as the date at which the first leaf reaches 2 cm in length), and date of first cleistogamous flower bud.
The coexistence of two kind of flowers in the same plant was detected in both populations and in herbarium material from other localities: a) cleistogamous preanthesis flowers and b) pseudocleistogamous flowers.
The genus Houstonia includes an array of homostylous, distylous, short-styled (presumably self-compatible) and even cleistogamous species (Lewis, 1962), so it seemed important to test for heteromorphic self-incompatibility in our species.