The scientists discovered that a key component of the cells lining the retinal blood vessels, namely claudin-5
, may be central to the development of the common blinding eye disease, AMD.
(2011a) showed that pericytes influenced the expression of claudin-5
, an important component of the BNB, by endothelial cells through secretion of growth factors.
Hyperstimulation and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist modulate ovarian vascular permeability by altering expression of the tight junction protein claudin-5
. Endocrinology 2006 Feb;147(2):694-699.
Serum levels of endocan, claudin-5
and cytokines in migraine.
The vehicle- and scrambled RNA-treated SAH mice also expressed significantly less ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5
than did the sham mice.
PB-MNC, stimulated or not with ephrin-B2, did not modify Evans blue extravasation (N = 6 - 7) or occludin, claudin-5
, ZO-1, or VE-cadherin mRNA expression compared to PBS (N =5 - 7) (Figure 5).
qPCR primer sets for VEGF, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), claudin-1 and claudin-5
, ZO-1, GFAP, caspase-3, uPAR, FPRs, tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] (TNF-[alpha]), interleukin--(IL-) 1[beta], and IL-6 were chosen to hybridize to unique regions of the appropriate gene sequence (see Table 1 for a complete list of assayed genes and primers).
GFAP and claudin-5
can be found both in the BBB and the enteric nervous system, which permeates the GI tract [42-44].
Corticosteroids are known for their anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic activity; they counteract macrophages and related cytokines involved in inflammation and neovascularization , modulate signaling pathway and effector proteins downstream of the VEGF receptor , restore the blood retinal barrier (BRB) through the induction of tight-junction proteins (occludin and claudin-5
) , and modulate active microglia .
Cx40 and Cx43 are associated with TJ proteins (occludin and claudin-5
) in porcine brain ECs through cytoplasmic scaffold proteins, such as ZO-1.
CD is also associated with both the redistribution and decreased expression of claudin-3, claudin-5
, and claudin-8, as well as increased expression of claudin-2 [27, 33].
Intestinal histology, lactulose, mannitol concentrations were measured, and zonula occludens (ZO)-1, occludin and claudin-5
transcription (polymerase chain reaction), translation (by Western blot analysis), and expression (by immunohistochemistry) were also measured.