Hendy, "Methane hydrates and climate change: the clathrate
gun hypothesis," AAPG Bulletin, vol.
have also captured the attention of climate scientists because they may contain ancient samples of oxygen and other gases, says glaciologist Todd A.
Again, this would be a dry process, not requiring near-surface liquid water; it could help to expose and heat clathrates
, or could operate without any clathrates
But this finding suggests that the clathrate
source is less susceptible than recently feared," Dr Smith said.
Handa, "Compositions, enthalpies of dissociation, and heat capacities in the range 85 to 270 K for clathrate
hydrates of methane, ethane, and propane, and enthalpy of dissociation of isobutane hydrate, as determined by a heat-flow calorimeter," The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, vol.
However, a control experi- ment using neon gas, which does not form a clathrate
, ruled out those pos- sibilities.
melting temperatures ([T.sub.m-cla]) show a range from 5.6 to 8.9[degrees]C, with corresponding salinities from 2.2 to 8.2wt.% NaCl equivalent (Figure 8(b)).
The C[O.sub.2] clathrate
was melted at the temperatures of 7.1 to 7.9[degrees]C, corresponding to salinities of 4.3 to 5.6 wt.% NaCl equivalent.
For thousands of years--and, in some cases, about 1,000,000 years--huge caches of methane have lain frozen and isolated from the atmosphere, both in the northern latitude permafrost and in the frozen seafloor methane clathrate
deposits, in which gas is trapped in a crystal lattice cage of frozen water.
Because water is also observed in this region, perhaps the material making up the bladed terrain is a methane clathrate
. A clathrate
is a structure in which a primary molecular species (say water, or H2O) forms a crystalline 'cage' to contain a guest molecule (methane or CH4, for example.).
D., "Large thermoelectric figure of merit at high temperature in Czochralski-grown clathrate
The sample was vortexed for 60 sec, stored for 1 hour at -4.0[degrees]C, and lyophilized for 24 h to obtain the clathrate